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Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy 10th corey chapter 09

Theory and Practice of
Counseling and Psychotherapy
TENTH EDITION

Gerald Corey
Cengage Learning

Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning


Chapter 9
Behavior Therapy

Copyright © 2017 Cengage Learning


Four Areas of Development
(slide 1 of 2)
1. Classical (or Respondent) Conditioning



Refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a
response through pairing

2. Operant Conditioning


Focuses on a type of learning in which behaviors are
influenced mainly by the consequences that follow them

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (1)


Four Areas of Development
(slide 2 of 2)
3. Social-Learning (or Social-Cognitive) Approach


Gives prominence to the triadic reciprocal interaction
between an individual’s behavior, personal factors, and
the environment

4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy


Social skills training, cognitive therapy, stress
management training, mindfulness, and acceptancebased practices all represent the cognitive behavioral
tradition

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (2)


Behavior Therapy (slide 1 of 3)


A set of clinical procedures relying on experimental
findings of psychological research


Based on principles of learning that are
systematically applied




Focus is on the client’s current problems and on
assessing behavior through observation or selfmonitoring

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (3)


Behavior Therapy (slide 2 of 3)


Largely action-oriented and educational – therapist
teaches clients skills of self-management



Behavior is something that can be operationally
defined; it includes overt actions as well as internal
processes



Change can take place without insight into underlying
dynamics and the origins of a psychological problem

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (4)


Behavior Therapy (slide 3 of 3)


Behaviorists ask: “What treatment, by whom, is the
most effective for this individual with that specific
problem and under which set of circumstances?”



The general goals of behavior therapy are to increase
personal choice and to create new conditions for
learning

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (5)


Functional Assessment of
Behavior


A-B-C model




Antecedent(s)
Behavior(s)
Consequence(s)

A

B

BehaBvior

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (6)

C

Consequence


Operant Conditioning


Positive and negative reinforcement
 Goal: to increase target behavior



Extinction
 Goal: to decrease or eliminate a behavior by
withholding reinforcement from a previously
reinforced response



Positive and negative punishment
 Goal: to decrease target behavior

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (7)


Progressive Muscle Relaxation


Progressive muscle relaxation is a popular method of
teaching people to cope with the stresses produced by
daily living



Relaxation becomes a well-learned response, which can
become a habitual pattern if practiced daily



Relaxation procedures have been applied to a variety of
clinical problems ranging from chronic pain to panic
disorder

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (8)


Systematic Desensitization


Based on classical conditioning, SD was developed by
Joseph Wolpe



SD is effective in reducing maladaptive anxiety and
treating anxiety-related disorders, particularly specific
phobias



SD entails relaxation training, development of a graduated
anxiety hierarchy, and presentation of hierarchy items
while client is deeply relaxed

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (9)


Exposure Therapies (slide 1 of 2)


In Vivo Desensitization
 Involves client exposure to the actual anxiety-evoking
events rather than simply imagining these situations



Flooding
 In vivo or imaginal exposure to anxiety-evoking stimuli
for a prolonged period of time without the feared
consequences

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (10)


Exposure Therapies (slide 2 of 2)


Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
 An exposure-based therapy


Involves imaginal flooding, cognitive restructuring, and
the use of rhythmic eye movements and other bilateral
stimulation to treat traumatic stress disorders



Extensive research has validated EMDR

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (11)


Social Skills Training


Helps clients develop and achieve skills in interpersonal
competence



May involve behavioral procedures (e.g.,
psychoeducation, modeling, behavior rehearsal, and
feedback)



If clients can correct their problematic behaviors in
practice situations, they can then apply these new skills in
daily life

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (12)


Self-Management Programs


In S-M programs people make decisions concerning
specific behaviors they want to control or change



The process includes selecting goals, translating goals into
target behaviors, self-monitoring, working out a plan for
change, and evaluating an action plan



S-M strategies have been successfully applied to many
populations and problems

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (13)


Multimodal Therapy


A comprehensive, systematic, holistic approach to
behavior therapy developed by Arnold Lazarus



Grounded in social-cognitive theory



Applies diverse behavioral techniques to a wide range
of problems; it encourages technical eclecticism

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (14)


Multimodal Therapy: BASIC ID
The complex personality of human beings can be
divided into seven major areas of functioning:
B = behavior
A = affective responses
S = sensations
I = images
C = cognitions
I = interpersonal relationships
D = drugs, biological functions, nutrition, and exercise


Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (15)


Dialectical Behavior Therapy


A promising blend of behavioral and psychoanalytic
techniques for treating borderline personality
disorders and other issues



Includes both acceptance-oriented and changeoriented strategies



Skills are taught in four modules: mindfulness,
interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation,
and distress tolerance

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (16)


Mindfulness-Based Stress
Reduction


Assists people in learning to live more fully in the
present



The skills taught in MBSR include sitting meditation
and mindful yoga, aimed at cultivating mindfulness



Didactic instruction is minimized and experiential
learning and self-discovery are emphasized



MBSR is not a form of psychotherapy per se, but it
can be an adjunct to therapy

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (17)


Mindfulness-Based Cognitive
Therapy


An 8-week group treatment program adapted from
MBSR that includes components of CBT



Clients learn to respond in skillful and intentional
ways to their automatic negative thought patterns



Kindness and self-compassion are essential
components of MBCT

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (18)


Acceptance and Commitment
Therapy


ACT involves fully accepting present experience and
mindfully letting go of obstacles



There is little emphasis on changing the content of a
client’s thoughts. Instead, the emphasis is on
acceptance (nonjudgmental awareness) of cognitions



The goal of ACT is to allow for increased psychological
flexibility

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (19)


Application to
Group Counseling (slide 1 of 2)


Treatments
 Rely on empirical support and tend to be brief
 Emphasize self-management skills and thought
restructuring



Leaders
 Use a brief, directive, psychoeducational approach
 Conduct behavioral assessments

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (20)


Application to
Group Counseling (slide 2 of 2)


Leaders and members
 Create collaborative, precise treatment goals
 Devise a specific treatment plan to help each
member meet goals
 Objectively measure treatment outcome

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (21)


Strengths from a Diversity Perspective


Behavior therapy may appeal to culturally diverse
clients for many reasons (e.g., it emphasizes objectivity,
tasks, cognition, behavior, action, coping, problemsolving, etc.)



Behavior therapy focuses on environmental, social, and
political conditions that contribute to a client’s
problems

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (22)


Limitations from a Diversity Perspective



Some counselors may use a variety of techniques in
narrowly treating specific behavioral problems



Therapists who do not assess the interpersonal and
cultural dimensions of the client’s problem may not
adequately prepare him/her for the consequences of
newly acquired social skills

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 9 (23)


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