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child and adolescent counseling chapter 18

Chapter 18

Group Counseling with
Children
Good leadership consists of doing less and being more.
John
Heider
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able
to:       
•List reasons for conducting groups
•Define groups and group types
•Outline different theoretical group orientations
•Explain group leadership and planning skills
•Discuss group stages and processes
•Describe a group model for crisis response
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A



Rationale
• a reality orientation, what Corey and Corey (2006)
considered a “natural laboratory”
• opportunities to improve relationship skills
• improve awareness of their own and other people’s values
and priorities
• develop an appreciation for different views
• provide a place where children can unlearn inappropriate
behaviors and learn new ways of relating through
interaction and feedback in a safe practice situation with
their peers.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Rationale
• group members express caring, acceptance, and support for
each other, participants learn to trust and share
• the group’s reality and emphasis on conscious thought
allow participants to explore and genuinely express their
thoughts, feelings, and actions
• as group members show understanding to each other, they
grow in tolerance and an accepting attitude.
• Bergin encourages the participation of all group members
in helping each other make educated choices about their
personal behaviors.

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Definition
Gladding defined a group as “a
collection of two or more individuals
who meet in face-to-face interaction,
interdependently, with the awareness
that each belongs to the group and
for the purpose of achieving mutually
agreed-on goals.”

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A



Types of Groups
• Psychoeducation: Use educational methods to
obtain information and develop meaning and
skills.
• Counseling: growth oriented for members
generally being normal people who are
experiencing stress in their life.
• Group therapy: focus on remediation and
treatment of those who are severely disturbed or
who are exhibiting socially deviant behavior.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Counselor Tasks










Knowledge and use of counseling skills and techniques
Direct communication traffic
Facilitate the group process
Block harmful group behaviors
Connect ideas
Obtain a consensus
Moderate discussion
Summarize
Support children who need encouragement and
reinforcement
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theoretically Oriented Group
Counseling







Adlerian
Reality Therapy
Behavioral
Rational emotive behavior
Transactional analysis
Gestalt therapy
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory Used in
Group Counseling
Adlerian
• focus on person’s history to
understand how individuals have
created their lifestyle

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory Used in
Group Counseling
Reality Therapy
• group is microcosm of real world
• members provide feedback about
behavior and plans for change

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory Used in
Group Counseling
Behavioral Counseling
• members help each other by providing
feedback or reinforcement to change
maladaptive behaviors
• directive leader (Corey, 1995)

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory Used in
Group Counseling
REBT
• Members recognize and confront
irrational thoughts, and use feedback
to learn new social skills

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory Used in
Group Counseling
Transactional Analysis (TA)
• used in groups that simulate life’s
interactions
• therapists prefer to use this theory in
groups

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory Used in
Group Counseling
Gestalt

• Focus on one volunteer client in a
group at a time
• Example: Hot seat technique

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Leadership Skills
(Association for Specialists in Group Work)
• Encourage the participation of group
members.
• Observe and identify group process events.
• Pay attention to and acknowledge the
behavior of group members.
• Clarify and summarize statements.
• Begin and end group sessions.
• Give information when needed.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Leadership Skills
(Association for Specialists in Group Work)








Model effective behavior.
Engage in appropriate self-disclosure.
Receive and deliver feedback.
Ask open-ended questions.
Empathize with members.
Confront group members’ behavior.

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Leadership Skills
(Association for Specialists in Group Work)

• Help members recognize the meaning
of an experience.
• Help group members integrate and
apply what they learn.
• Demonstrate ethical and professional
standards.
• Keep the group focused on
accomplishing its goals.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Leader Characteristics
(Corey)
• Presence – genuine care in “being there” for clients
• Personal power – self confidence and awareness of one’s
power
• Courage – ability to take risks and be vulnerable
• Willingness to confront oneself – being honest and self aware
• Sincerity and authenticity – sincere interest in the well-being of
others and behaving without pretense
• Sense of identity – knowing one’s values, strengths, and
limitations
• Belief and enthusiasm for the group process
• Inventiveness and creativity – open to new ideas and
experience

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Focus

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Focus

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Starting a Group





Selecting group members
Heterogeneous/Homogenous
Appropriateness of group due to behavior
Gender balance






Recruiting a Group
Screening interview
Size of a group
Group setting
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Stages
(Gladding and Corey)
Initial stage (Orientation and exploration):
• Get acquainted
• Determine structure of group
• Explore members’ expectations
Transition stage (Challenge and resistance
occurs):
• Group leader may be challenged
• Increased anxiety in members
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Stages
(Gladding and Corey)
Working stage (Cohesion and
productivity occur):
• Members focus on identifying goals
and concerns
• Work on goals in group and outside of
group
• Practice new behaviors
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Counseling Process
First session:
• Clarify ground rules and guidelines.
• Build cohesiveness and trust.
• Discuss confidentiality.
• Discuss active listening for each other.

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Group Counseling Process
Remaining sessions:









Summary of the initial meeting.
Establish therapeutic atmosphere.
Leader models facilitative behaviors.
Establish a relationship.
Address members’ concerns/problems.
Explore previous solutions, look at alternatives.
Set goals, try new behaviors, assign homework
Report and evaluate results
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


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