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child and adolescent counseling chapter 14

Chapter 14

Transactional
Analysis

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Transactional analysis
We do not grow absolutely, chronologically. We
grow sometimes in one dimension, and not in
another, unevenly. We grow partially. We are
relative. We are mature in one realm, childish
in another. The past, present, and future
mingle and pull us backward, forward, or fix us
in the present. We are made up of layers,
cells, constellations.
Anaïs Nin
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A



Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:      
•Outline the development of transactional analysis and Eric
Berne
•Explain the theory of transactional analysis

 

•Discuss the counseling relationship and goals in transactional
analysis
•Describe assessment, process, and techniques
•Demonstrate some therapeutic techniques
•Clarify the effectiveness of transactional analysis
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Eric Berne(stein)
• Born May 10, 1910 in Montreal, Canada
• Graduated from McGill University 1935 with
medical degree
• Became U.S. citizen and served in armed forces
• 1964 published Games People Play
• He attributed the book’s success to the recognition
factor

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


TA Development
• Core of transactional analysis (TA) in 1954
• Berne was involved in the psychoanalysis when the patient
suddenly said, “I’m not a lawyer, I’m just a little boy,”
• Sparked the idea that each of us contains a child ego state
accompanied by parent and adult ego states.
• After listening to his patients relating “games” for some 30
years, Berne decided to gather some of these into a
catalog.
• Led to Games People Play (1964)

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A



TA Development
• Three years after its publication, Games People Play
(1964) had been on the nonfiction best seller list for 111
weeks—longer than any other book that decade.
• Berne attributed the book’s success to the recognition
factor—
o some of us recognize ourselves in it,
o whereas some of us recognize other people in the
descriptions of winners and losers.

• The everyday language and categories he used came from
his preferences.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


The Nature of People and
The Theory of Counseling
• TA theory is a statement about human personality
• Derives from four types of analysis
Structural Analysis

Analyze a person’s
personality

Transactional Analysis

What people do and say
to each other

Script Analysis

The life dramas people
play out

Game Analysis

Ulterior transactions
leading to payoff

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Structural Analysis
• Each person has three ego states
Parent
(nurturing or critical)

Mimics our own parents

Adult
(rational thinking)

Reality based

Child
(natural or adaptive )

Free, spontaneous
passive

• The well adjusted person can choose which one is
active
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


The Picture
Nurturing Parent
“Let me help you”
Extends hand

Critical Parent

NP

P

CP

“You shouldn’t”
Pointing finger

Adult
“The facts are”
Attentive

A

Free Child
“I want”
Excited

FC

C

AC

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A

Adaptive Child
“I did my job”
Expectant


Transactional Analysis
• A transaction is a unit of human communication
Complementary
Crossed

Covert

Response comes from the
ego state to which it was
addressed
Response comes from an
ego state not addressed
More than one ego state of
each person involved dishonest

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Transaction Types
P

P

A

A

C

C

P
A

P

C

C

P

P

A

A

C

A

Where are the keys?
In the drawer.

Where are the keys?
Why is it always my fault?

You should go to college.

You’re not smart enough.
C
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Script Analysis
• Your life script – usually learned from your
parents child
o

Examples: martyr, procrastinator, success,
failure, blamer, distracter

• Three basic types: winner, loser, non-winner
• Five Components
o
o
o
o
o

Directions from parents
Corresponding personality development
Confirming childhood decision on life
Penchant for success or failure
Pattern of behavior
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Game Analysis
• There are three basic roles
o
o
o

Persecutor
Rescuer
Victim

• People turn their life scripts into games
• Games are a pattern of ulterior transactions
• Their purpose is to maintain homeostasis
• Counseling goal is to move to complimentary
transactions, not games
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Life Positions
YOU
I
OK

NOT OK

OK

NOT OK

Mature independence Battered child, criminal

Normal child,
dependent

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A

As a child couldn’t
depend on parents


Games Clients Play
Why don’t you; yes but

Most common client game

I’m only trying to help

Counselor’s response to above

Courtroom

Counselor roped into being judge
of two people

Kick me and
NIGYYSOB

Always the victim
Double Bind

Gossiping

Talking about someone who isn’t
there

Wooden leg

Try to get counselor to give up on
you

If it weren’t for you

Avoids responsibility

Red cross

Persecutor gets victim in trouble
then rescues

Make someone sad

Get attention by making other
jealous

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


The Pursuit of Strokes
Conditional

Unconditional

Positive

I like you when
___

I like you

Negative

I don’t like you
when ___

I don’t like you

• Structuring time in pursuit of strokes
o
o
o
o
o
o

Withdrawing: avoid any strokes
Rituals: socially determined – safe
Pastimes: baseball shopping – minimal
Activities: career – reality – more interaction
Games: stroking is manipulated
Intimacy: unconditional positive – game free

• Rackets
o

Collect bad stamps to be cashed in later for free bad behavior

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Counseling method
• The counselor as teacher
o

Teach the concepts of TA and guide the client in
how to apply them

• Teach

Definition and explanation of ego states
Analysis of transactions between ego states
Positive and negative stroking
(“warm fuzzies” and “cold pricklies”)
o I’m OK you’re OK as a goal
o Games and rackets
o Scripts
o
o
o

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Cross Cultural Applications
• Eric Berne believed everyone worked in
these three ego states
• Appeals to groups or cultures that prefer a
cognitive approach
• The same approach is used regardless of
culture or age of client

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A



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