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child and adolescent counseling chapter 6

Chapter 6

Person-centered
Counseling
I’m looking for the angel within.
—Michelangelo

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Chapter objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able
to:

•Outline the development of client-centered counseling and
Carl Rogers
•Explain the theory of client-centered counseling, including its
core concepts
•Discuss the counseling relationship and goals in clientcentered treatment
•Describe assessment, process, and techniques in clientcentered counseling
•Demonstrate some therapeutic techniques

•Clarify the effectiveness of client-centered counseling
•Discuss client-centered play therapy
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Carl Rogers
• Childhood marked by close family ties, a strict
religious and moral atmosphere and the
appreciation of hard work.
• Attended graduate school at Union Theological
Seminary
• Fellowship at Institute of Child Guidance
• At Ohio State University as a professor began to
publish cases in “client-centered therapy”

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Carl Rogers
• While at University of Chicago wrote ClientCentered Therapy (1951)
• Eventually moved to Western Behavioral
Sciences Institute and in La Jolla formed
the Center for Studies of the Person
• Spent most of his time working with and
writing about person-centered therapy with
groups
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Nature of People
• rational,
• socialized,
• forward-moving,
• realistic beings
• negative, antisocial emotions result of frustrated
basic impulses
• once free of defensive behavior, reactions positive
and progressive
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A



Person-centered counselor
believes people:
• Have worth and dignity and deserve respect
• Have the capacity and right to self-direction
• Can select their own values
• Can learn to make constructive use of
responsibility
• Have the capacity to deal with their feelings,
thoughts and behaviors
• Have the potential for constructive change
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory of Counseling
1. Two people in psychological
contact
2. Client is in a state of incongruence
3. Therapist is congruent and involved
in relationship

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory of Counseling (Cont.)
4. Therapist has unconditional
positive regard for client
5. Therapist has empathetic
understanding of the client’s frame
of reference
6. Communication of empathetic and
positive regard is achieved.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory of Counseling
• All 6 conditions necessary for personality
change
• The sixth condition, the basis for trust between
counselor and client, is especially vital.
• Thompson & Henderson maintain that the six
conditions provide a sound foundation for
most standard methods of counseling children

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory of Counseling
• Do not give advice, ask question or make
interpretations
• Put clients in position of charting the
direction of their counseling interviews
• Limit responses to summaries and
clarifications of the content, feelings, and
expectations for counseling presented by
the client
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory of Counseling
Clients receiving person-centered counseling
learn more about themselves and their
unsolved problems than they have ever known
before because they are in the teaching role of
trying to help counselors understand their (the
clients’) situations. The task of the personcentered counselor is to take periodic oral
quizzes on how much they are learning and
understanding.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory of Counseling
Active Listening Process
• paraphrase
• summarize
• reflect feelings
• clarify

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Theory of Counseling
• Counselor creates a warm and accepting
atmosphere for client
• Counselor reflects client’s inner world with
warmth, acceptance, and trust
• Main goal is assisting people in becoming more
autonomous, spontaneous and confident
• Ultimate goal is for client to be a fully functioning
person who has learned to be free and who can
counsel self
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Counseling Method
• Counselor as person vital, a model
• Possess and demonstrate openness,
empathic understanding, independence,
spontaneity, acceptance, mutual respect
and intimacy
• Strongest techniques: congruence
(genuineness), unconditional positive
regard (respect) and empathy
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Rogers’s Six Principles
• First principle: “…I have found that it does
not help, in the long run, to act as though I
am something I am not.”
• Second principle: “I have found it
effective…to be accepting of myself.”
• Third principle: “I have found it to be of
enormous value when I can permit myself
to understand another person.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Rogers’s Six Principles (Cont.)
• Fourth principle: “I have found it to be of
value to be open to the realities of life as
they are revealed in me and in other
people.”
• Fifth principle: “The more I am able to
understand myself and others, the more
that I am open to the realities of life and the
less I find myself wishing to rush in.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Rogers’s Six Principles (Cont.)
• Sixth principle: “It has been my
experience that people have a
basically positive direction.”

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Active Listening
• Carkhuff systematized Rogers’s concept
into usable model
• Believes counselors typically respond on
any of five levels relating to the three
phases of counseling
• Phase I is where you are now
• Phase II is where you would like to be
• Phase III is planning how to get from I to II
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Gordon’s Dirty Dozen
Road Blocks to Communication
1. ordering: directing
2. warning: threaten
3. moralizing: shoulds and oughts
4. advising: give suggestions
5. messages of logic: counter argument
6. judging: criticism
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Gordon’s Dirty Dozen
Road Blocks to Communication
(Cont.)

7. praising: butter them up
8. name calling: ridicule
9. psychoanalyzing
10. reassuring: give sympathy
11. probing: who, what, why?
12. humor: distraction
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Carkhuff’s
Levels of Communication
Level One: Discounting Feelings
• “Oh don’t worry about that--we all have
problems worse than that.”
• “If you think you have a problem, listen
to this.”
• “You must have done something to
cause that.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Carkhuff’s
Levels of Communication (Cont.)
Level Two: Giving Advice
• “You need to study harder.”
• “You should eat better.”
• “Why don’t you make more friends?”
• “How would you like your brother to
treat you the way you treat him?”
• “You should look for another job.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Carkhuff’s
Levels of Communication (Cont.)
Level Three: Summarize the Problem
• “You feel _____ because ______ .”
• “You are sad because your best friend
moved.”
• “You are happy because your team
won.”

© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Carkhuff’s
Levels of Communication (Cont.)
Help for Level 3:
• First counselors ask themselves whether
client is expressing pain or pleasure
• Then find the correct feeling word to describe
the emotion
• Do not parrot the exact words of the client
but capture the feelings to help them
recognize their emotions as indicators of
their direction in life
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


Carkhuff’s
Levels of Communication (Cont.)
Level Four: Summarize the Goal
• “You feel _____ because ______ and
you want__________.”
• “You are anxious because you have to
give a speech and you want to be
more confident about it.”
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A


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