Tải bản đầy đủ

Applying career development theory to counseling 6e chapter 15 and 16

Chapter 15

INFLUENCES ON CAREER DECISION-MAKING MODELS

Cognitive Information
Processing Theory
(Prescriptive)
Research on learning
Research on decisionmaking
Cognitive science
developmental approach

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

Spiritual approach
(Descriptive)
Religion
Philosophy

1



INDIVIDUALISTIC APPROACH TO
DECISION-MAKING

Personal reality – My sense of what is right for me
Common reality – My sense of what is right for you
and others

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

2


SUMMARY OF THE INDIVIDUALISTIC APPROACH

Growth of decision-making skills
Client-centered
Deal with seemingly unrelated issues
Humanistic and subjective

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

3


SPIRITUAL PERSPECTIVES ON CAREER-DECISION MAKING

Religious perspectives
Bloch and Richmond’s seven spiritual concepts
Miller-Tiedeman’s Lifecareer Foundation

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

4



CHARACTERISTICS OF MILLER-TIEDEMAN’S
LIFECAREER THEORY

Each individual is his or her own theory maker
Deep respect for the individual and the
individual’s Life Process Theory
Trust inner wisdom
Flow with, rather than fight your career
development

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

5


BLOCH AND RICHMOND’S SEVEN THEMES REFLECTING
A SPIRITUAL APPROACH TO CAREER DECISION-MAKING
Change

Balance

Energy

Community –
Calling

Harmony –
Unity


Internal or external
Work, play, relationships
Work, play, relationships, self
Companionship, culture, cosmic
One’s ideal work
From work, meditation, stillness
Connectedness with self, others,
community, culture, universe

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

6


MILLER-TIEDEMAN’S APPROACH TO CAREER COUNSELING

Clients have a career – Their life
Clients are the best judge of what works for them
Learn through assessing experience
Tests and inventories should not interfere with
career exploration
Help clients set intentions without placing time
restrictions on them
Be enthusiastic about change

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

7


HANSEN’S SIX TASKS IN AN INTEGRATIVE
APPROACH TO CAREER PLANNING
1. Finding work that needs doing in a changing
global context.
2. Weaving our lives into a meaningful whole.
3.

Connecting family and work.

4.

Valuing pluralism and individuality.

5. Managing personal transitions and organizational
change
6.

Exploring spirituality and life purpose.

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

8


ASSUMPTIONS IN THE APPLICATION OF
COGNITIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY TO
CAREER DECISION-MAKING COUNSELING
Both affect and cognitive processing are
important
To make career decisions individuals need
information about self, world of work, and the
thought process
Information about self and work are continually
changing
By improving one’s information processing
capabilities, problem-solving abilities are
improved
COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

9


PYRAMID OF INFORMATION PROCESSING DOMAINS
IN CAREER DECISION-MAKING

MetaCognitions
Generic
Information
Processing Skills
(CASVE)
Self
Knowledge

Occupational
Knowledge

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

Executive
Processing
Domain
Decision-Making
Skills Domain
Knowledge
Domain

10


WHAT’S INVOLVED IN CAREER CHOICE

Thinking
About My
Decision Making
Knowing
How I Make
Decisions
Knowing
About
Myself
COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

Knowing
About My
Options

11


CASVE SKILLS IN
COGNITIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY

Communication – Identifying a problem, input from self
Analysis

– Interrelating problem components – self
and occupations

Synthesis

– Creating likely alternatives

Valuing

– Prioritizing alternatives

Execution



Forming means - ends
strategies

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

12


THE EXECUTIVE PROCESSING DOMAIN
IN COGNITIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY

Self-talk

– Expectations of ourselves

Self-awareness – Knowing what we are doing
and why
Monitoring and – Monitoring the CASVE
Control
process

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

13


Chapter 16

CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY

Outline (Basic concepts)
Strengths and Weaknesses

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

14


LAPAN AND TURNER – AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO
CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY
A contextually responsive career-counseling system
1. Help clients develop self-efficacy beliefs to deal with barriers that
affect outcome expectations and career goals (Chapter 14)
2. Develop vocational identity (Chapter 8)
3. Develop work-readiness skills
4. Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription and compromise (Chapter 7)
and trait and factor theory (Chapter 2) help students develop an
understanding of themselves and work
5. Crystallize valued vocational interests, Super (Chapters 7 and 8)
6. Help students to achieve academically and to value lifelong learning.
(Chapter 9)
COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

15


CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES FOR CHILDHOOD AND
ADOLESCENCE
Childhood Developmental
Super
Gottfredson
Adolescence
Developmental
Marcia
Super

Trait and Factor
Holland
Work Adjustment

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

Other
Constructivist
Social learning
Social cognitive
Spiritual
Cognitive
information
processing
16


CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES FOR
ADULTHOOD
Developmental
Trait and Factor
Other
Super
Holland
Constructivist
Myers-Briggs
Social learning
Work Adjustment
Social
cognitive
Spiritual
Cognitive
information
processing
COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

17


COMBINING THEORIES
Types of theories and how well they can be combined with
similar theories or different types of theories .

Decisionmaking
Decision-making
Developmental
Trait and factor

poor
good
good

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

Developmental
good
possible
good

Trait and
Factor
good
good
good

18


NON COUNSELING APPLICATIONS OF THEORIES
Screening methods – Super, Holland, Myers-Briggs
Paper and pencil methods – Holland
Computer assisted guidance systems – Trait and factor, Holland
Internet – Career information, career counseling organizations,
education, occupations, job postings

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

19


USING THEORIES IN GROUP CAREER COUNSELING
Widely used

Possible to be used

Holland
Krumboltz’s
Social learning

Constructivist
Spiritual approaches
Cognitive information processing

Myers-Briggs
Gottfredson
Hopson and Adams
Social cognitive
Super
Trait and factor
Work adjustment

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

20


THEORIES APPLIED TO PLACEMENT
AND OUTPLACEMENT COUNSELING
Holland or



Myers-Briggs



Use types to assess networking
and
job search style

Hopson and Adams



Respond to career crises

Super



Determine values of various roles



View job search strategies
differently depending on life stages



Execution stage of the CASVE cycle

Cognitive
Information

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

21


OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
Holland’s six types

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
Standard Occupational Classification System (SOC)
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE)

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

22


THEORIES MOST CONCERNED WITH ISSUES
RELATED TO WOMEN AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Social cognitive career theory (women and culturally
diverse populations)
Gottfredson (women)
Super’s life span theory (women and culturally
diverse populations)

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A
division of Cengage Inc.

23



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×