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Applying career development theory to counseling, 6e chapter 13 and 14

Chapter 13

BANDURA’S TRIADIC RECIPROCAL INTERACTION SYSTEM

Cognitive structures
regulate
Personal factors
(memories, beliefs, preferences, self-perceptions)

Environment

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

Behaviors

1


KRUMBOLTZ’S VIEW OF
CAREER DECISION MAKING


Genetic Influences
Environmental Conditions and Events

Learning experiences

Social conditions
Parents and caretakers

Instrumental (H)

Peer group
Structured educational

setting

Occupational

conditions

Associative (O)
Task approach skills
Goal setting
Values clarification
Generating

alternatives

Obtaining

occupational

information

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

2


CLIENT RESOURCES AND SKILLS (KRUMBOLTZ)
Self-observation generalizations about

Abilities
Interests
Values
The world (occupational information)
Task approach skills
Goal setting
Values clarification
Generating alternatives
Obtaining occupational information

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

3


COUNSELOR TECHNIQUES – BEHAVIORAL
(KRUMBOLTZ)
Reinforcement
Positive
Aspects of information
Aspects of career
Of reinforcement

Role playing
seeking
decision making

Client plays self
Client plays other
Audio or videotape

Role models
Associative learning
experience
Counselors as role
models
Family and community figures as role models

Simulation
Job Experience Kits
Introductory courses
Volunteer work

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

4


COUNSELOR TECHNIQUES – COGNITIVE (KRUMBOLTZ)

Goal clarification: Examine goals specifically; break into smaller goals
Counter a troublesome belief: Look for inaccurate generalizations about

beliefs about self or

others
Look for inconsistencies between words and actions

Cognitive rehearsal: Practice or rehearse positive statements to reduce

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

negative self-thoughts

5


HAPPENSTANCE LEARNING THEORY
FUNDAMENTAL GOALS FOR CAREER COUNSELING

1. To help clients learn to take actions to achieve more satisfying

and career and personal lives – not to

make one decision.
2. Career assessments are used to stimulate learning, not to match

traits with occupational characteristics.

3. Clients learn to engage in exploratory actions to develop

beneficial unplanned events.

4. Counseling goals are measured by the client’s accomplishments

outside the counseling session.

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

6


APPLYING HAPPENSTANCE LEARNING
THEORY TO CAREER COUNSELING

Skills needed to deal with opportunities
that arise by chance:
Curiosity – Explore opportunities resulting from chance events
Persistence – Learn when there are setbacks
Flexibility – Change attitude to deal with chance events
Optimism – Pursue new events; find that actions can pay off
Risk taking – Responding to new events

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

7


APPLYING HAPPENSTANCE LEARNING
THEORY TO CAREER COUNSELING

Four counseling steps:
1.

Normalize planned happenstance in client’s

background.

2.

Help transform curiosity into learning and exploration

opportunities.

3.

Teach clients to produce desirable chance
events.

4.

Teach clients to overcome blocks to action.

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

8


Chapter 14

DIFFERENCE IN EMPHASIS IN
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES

Krumboltz

Social Cognitive Career Learning Theory

Emphasis on cognitive-

Emphasis on cognitive processes

Focus on learning

Focus on choice

Focus on planned
Application focused

Focus on self-efficacy

behavioral processes

happenstance

Research focused

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

9


SOCIAL COGNITIVE CAREER THEORY
BASIC CONCEPTS

Self-efficacy – Judgments of one’s abilities to
organize and carry out actions

Outcome

– Estimates of the probability of

expectations

Goals

an outcome

– Set objectives that guide

actions

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

10


CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN SOCIAL COGNITIVE CAREER THEORY
Barriers
Supports
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Background contextual factors
Contextual influences proximal to choice behaviors

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

11


SOCIAL COGNITIVE MODEL OF CAREER CHOICE

Self-efficacy effects

Choice actions

Learning experiences and
outcome expectations
and interests

effect performance domains and attainment

which effect choice goals

which effect

which effect choice actions
Self-Efficacy

which effects learning
experiences and outcome
expectations and interests

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

12


WAYS OF DEALING WITH BARRIERS

Identify possible barriers to achieving career goals

Examine the likelihood that client will have to deal with barriers

Develop strategies for dealing with barriers if they occur

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Decisional Balance Sheets –
List positive and negative consequences
Estimate chance barrier may be encountered
Write down strategies for preventing or managing barriers
COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

13


WAYS OF DEALING WITH SUPPORTS

Identify ways families, friends, teachers, and others can help in achieving career goals

Provide support in achieving career goals

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

14


OTHER SOCIAL COGNITIVE MODELS OF CAREER
DEVELOPMENT

Model of Interests
Model of Performance
Model of Work and Life Satisfaction

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

15


SOCIAL COGNITIVE CAREER THEORY
EMPHASIZES ATTENTION TO THESE POPULATIONS

Women

Culturally diverse peoples

COPYRIGHT © 2014 Brooks/Cole*Wadsworth Publishing Company A division of Cengage Inc.

16



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