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The world of the Counselor An introduction to the counseling profession 5e chapter 18

Student Affairs and College Counseling

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Student affairs is broad range of services that
includes, but is not limited to:
• Recruitment activities
• Admissions
• Registration
• Orientation




• Residential Life
• Counseling

• Advising
• Much more

Student affairs practitioners help to facilitate
students’ learning and knowledge
Student affairs practioners work in a variety of
settings

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Beginning
▪ American Colleges in 1700s saw their goal as the moral
development of men for the clergy
▪ Faculty saw students as immature and in need of moral
guidance
▪ Philosophy of “in loco parentis” reigned
▪ Faculty took on most of the roles that student affairs
practitioners do today

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Expansion of Student Services
▪ Early 1800s faculty less involved with moral and religious
development and more interested in academic relationshi
▪ Late 1800s concern for personal development of students
resurfaced
▪ Deans of students were hired
▪ First student affairs staff hired (e.g., counselors)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning


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Expansion of Student Services (Cont’d)
 Psychoanalysis, vocational guidance, and testing at
beginning of the 20th century, led to emphasis on the
psychological aspects of students and aptitude testing
 Early 1900s saw some of first associations formed:
▪ National Association of Women Deans and Counselors
(NAWDAC)
▪ National Association of Student Personnel Administrators
(NASPA)
▪ American College Personnel Association (ACPA) , now
called College Student Educators International (although
they’ve kept the acronym: ACPA)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Depression of 1920s and 1930s brought cutbacks
 Affected student affairs services
 Decline in enrollment
1940s: Resurgence of student affairs practice as country
moved out of depression
 GI Bill at end of WWII
 Law numbers of people going to college
 Many needed academic guidance and personal support
services

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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 1960s through 1980

1960s: Civil rights rallies and antiwar protests on campuses
In loco parentis not as important (students want independence)
Theories of student development introduced
1960s and 1970s: Application of student development theories
Rise in proactive interventions: e.g., crisis centers, women’s
centers, substance abuse centers
▪ More counseling centers






© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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1980s
 Refinement and increased use of developmental theories
 Focus on minorities, women, and nontraditional students
 Broadening of services, yet funding cutbacks
 A number of legislative initiatives related to affirmative
action, sexual harassment, student rights
1990s
 Funding cutbacks and reduction in services do to recession
 Colleges attempted to maintain academic programs while
trying to reduce the cost of student services

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Late 1990s
 Resurgence of funding and solvency of programs
 Focus on technology and campus violence (and safety)
issues
Current Practices
 Increased emphasis on creating a multicultural
environment
 Focus on ensuring a safe and secure campus
 Focus on reducing drugs and alcohol
 Maintaining programs in light of cuts to higher education

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Counselor: Guiding, Supporting, Advising Students
Counselors will:
 Address the needs of the “whole” student, (emotional,
physical, spiritual, and interpersonal aspects)
 See each student is unique
 Recognize that the affective domain is integral to the
student’s development
 Have a developmental perspective
 Understand the importance of the personal characteristics
of the helper
 Sees how counseling can be of value to students and
ultimately to universities

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Educator: Fostering Intellectual and Personal Growth
 Advisor
 Mentor
 Curriculum Builder/Instructor
 Evaluator/Assessor
 Scholar-Researcher

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Campus Ecology Manager: Creating a Successful
Student Development Climate
 Physical Setting
 Human Aggregates
 Organizational Structure and Dynamics
 Perceptual or Constructed Environments

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Administrator: Designing and Managing Programs
 Students
 Services and Programs
 Structure
 Staff
 Sources

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Developmental Theory
 Driving force behind student affairs is that as students
attend college, they develop in fairly predictable ways
 Student affairs practitioners can use knowledge of
development to help guide students
 Many different developmental theories can be applied
 Two popular theories
▪ Chickering’s Seven Vectors Model
▪ Perry’s Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Chickering’s Seven Vectors of Student Development
1.Achieving Competence
2.Managing Emotions
3.Developing Autonomy
4.Establishing Identity
5.Freeing Interpersonal Relationship
6.Developing Purpose
7.Developing Integrity

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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 Perry’s Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development
 Dualism
 Relativism
 Commitment in Relativism

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Academic Support Services Campus
Career Development Services
Counseling Centers (see Box 18.1, p. 622)
Disability Services (Office of Educational Accessibility)
Health Services
Human Resources
Multicultural Student Services (see Box 18.2, p. 625)
Residence Life and Housing (see Box 18.3, p. 626)
Student Activities Services
Other Student Services Offices (see Box 18.4, p. 627)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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 Up to 1/3 of students are students of color
 Multicultural issues has become particularly important
 Applying Student Development Theory to Students from
Diverse Backgrounds
 Student affairs practitioners need to make sure their
theories are applicable to students from diverse groups
 Student affairs practitioners need to be particularly up on
Racial/Cultural Identity Models (See Chapter 14)
 Student affairs practitioners must increasingly understand
students who have biracial and multiracial backgrounds

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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 Implementing a Cultural Environment Transitions Model
 Help universities transform their environment to one that
embraces diversity
 Valverde’s model describes five sequential stages in the
development of a multicultural college campus
 See Table 18.1, p. 629

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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 Becoming a Cultural Broker
 Help administrators see how the use of culture-specific
terms such as “Christmas vacation” might be offensive
 Help orientation leaders assess needs of diverse students
 Assist in recruitment of diverse staff
 Encourage use of nonsexist/nonculturally biased language
 Offer diversity workshops for students, staff, faculty, and
administrators
 Provide assistance (e.g., scholarships) to encourage minority
students to enroll
 Support the development of cultural student groups
 Advocate for those traditionally oppressed on campus
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Removing the Barriers to Academic Excellence of
Underrepresented Students
 Often, an artificial barrier between students and traditional
faculty which affects academics of diverse students.
 This barrier often related to:
▪ Differences in language
▪ Differences in of meaning making,
▪ Differences in sexual orientation
▪ Faculty perceptions of racial and ethnic conflict
▪ General cultural differences
 Work with faculty to help them understand barriers

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Creating a Social Justice Environment
 Three ways:
1. Provide support for students from diverse
backgrounds as well as those who have been
disenfranchised and poor.
2. Educate students about oppression and privilege and
create an affirming environment that advocates for
liberation of oppressed
3. Work to change policies and institutional structures
that foster oppression

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Ethical Concerns
 Ethical guidelines: Two that you can use:
▪ ACPA has its own
▪ ACCA applies ACAs guidelines
 Confidentiality and Duty to Warn

▪ See “Tarasoff Case and Foreseeable Harm (Duty to
Warn) Box 4.13, p. 142
▪ Speak out when there is a “Duty to Warn”

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Ethical Concerns (Cont’d)
 Confidentiality, Informed Consent, and the Breaking of
Rules
▪ Student affairs specialists work for an institution but
also has an ethical allegiance with their clients
▪ If a student is going to do something that might harm
the institution, the specialist might be placed in the
middle
▪ Thus, the student affairs practitioner must be clear with
his or her clients about the limits of confidentiality

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Professional Issues
 Professional Associations
▪ ACCA: (div. of ACA): American College Counseling Association
▪ ACPA: College Student Educators International
▪ NCDA: National Career Development Association
▪ NASPA: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators



▪ AMHCA: American Mental Health Counselors Association

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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