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The world of the Counselor An introduction to the counseling profession 5e chapter 14

Chapter 14: Theory and Concepts of Multicultural Counseling
Chapter 15: Knowledge and Skills of Multicultural Counseling

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Theory & Concepts of Multicultural Counseling

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Definitions:
 a consistent readiness to identify the cultural dimensions of clients’
lives and a subsequent integration of culture into counseling work
(McAuliffe, 2008 p. 5).

 Sue and Terino (2005): “Multicultural counseling and therapy can be

defined as both a helping role and process that uses modalities and
defines goals consistent with the life experiences and cultural values
of clients, recognizes client identities to include individual, group, and
universal dimensions, advocates the use of universal and culturespecific strategies and roles in the healing process, and balances the
importance of individualism and collectivism in the assessment
diagnosis and treatment of client and client systems” (p. 6)
 See Figure 14.1, 469)
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Diversity in America
 See Table 14.1, p. 471



Counseling is not working for many in U.S.
 Minority clients are:
▪ Frequently misunderstood
▪ Often misdiagnosed
▪ Find therapy less helpful
▪ Terminate more quickly

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Counselors may not be helpful to clients because:
1. The melting pot myth
2. Incongruent expectations about counseling
3. Lack of understanding of social forces
4. Ethnocentric worldview

5. Ignorance of racist attitudes & prejudices
6. Cultural differences in expression of symptomatology
7. Unreliability of assessment/research instruments
8. Institutional racism

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Culture
Discrimination and
Microaggressions
Ethnicity
Minority and
Nondominant groups
Power Differentials

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Race (See Bpx 14.1, p. 476)
Religion and Spirituality
Sexism, Heterosexim, and
Sexual Prejudice
Sexual Orientation
Prejudice, Stereotypes, and
Racism

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Hispanic, Latino, Latina, Chicano, Chicana, Black, Negro, African
American, Afro-American, Oriental, Asian American, Chinese
American, Japanese American, Native American, Indian, Eskimo,
Inuit, Aleut, native, American Indian, Asian Indian, Jew, Hebrew,
Jewish American, Protestant, WASP, Muslim, Moslem, Islamic,
Born Again, Fundamentalist Christian, Christian, Catholic, white,
Caucasian, European American, American, gay, homosexual,
heterosexist, straight, heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian, queer,
transgendered, transsexual, cross-dresser, transvestite, disabled
person, individual with disability, mentally retarded, intellectual
disability, handicapped person, physically challenged, and on and
on.

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Existential Model
 Eigenwelt: Individual Uniqueness: Psychological Self
 Mitwelt: Common Cultural Experiences
 Umwelt: Grounded in biology—how we experience the
world around us
 Uberwelt: Spiritual Self
 See Figure 14.2, p. 482

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Tripartite Model of Personal Identity
▪ See Figure 14.3, p. 481



Bell's Interpersonal Model
▪ Acculturated Interpersonal Style
▪ Bi-cultural Interpersonal Style
▪ Culturally Immersed
▪ Traditional Interpersonal Style

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 Developmental Models

▪ Atkinson Morten and Sue’s five stage model:
▪ Stage 1: Conformity
▪ Stage 2: Dissonance
▪ Stage 3: Resistance and Immersion
▪ Stage 4: Introspection
▪ Stage 5:Integrative Awareness
 Stages crossed with attitudes toward self, toward
others of same minority, toward others of different
minority, and toward dominant group
▪ See Table 14.2., p. 483
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Developmental Models (Cont’d)
 White Identity Model of Sabnani, et al.
▪ Stage 1: Pre-exposure
▪ Stage 2: Exposure
▪ Stage 3: Prominority/antiracism
▪ Stage 4: Retreat to White Culture
▪ Stage 5: Redefinition & Integration
▪ See Table 14.3, p. 484 and Figure 14.4,p. 486

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Attend to the “RESPECTFUL” Acronym (from Chapter 1):
R– Religious/spiritual identity
E – Economic class background
S – Sexual identity
P – Psychological development
E – Ethnic/racial identity
C – Chronological disposition
T – Trauma and other threats to their personal well-being
F – Family history
U – Unique physical characteristics
L – Language and location of residence

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Using the Multicultural Counseling Competencies
 Attitudes and Beliefs
▪ See Box 14.2, p. 488
 Knowledge
▪ See Box 14.3, p. 488
 Skills
▪ See Box 14.4, p. 489

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 Multicultural Counseling as “Fourth Force”



 “Multiculturalism is not competing with humanism, behaviorism,
or psychodynamic perspectives but rather demonstrates the
importance of making the cultural context central to whichever
psychological theory is being applied.” (Pedersen, Crethar, &
Carlson, 2008, p. 223)
Can we have Multicultural Counseling without Social Justice
Action?
 “Social justice counseling includes empowerment of the
individual as well as active confrontation of injustices and
inequality in society because they affect clientele as well as those
in their systemic contexts.”(Crethar, Rivera, & Nash, 2008, p.
270).

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Sensitivity to multicultural issues has led to the creation of
new standards and filtered into every standard in counseling:
 Multicultural Counseling Competencies (see Appendix A)
 Ethical Code (see Table 14.4, p. 491)
 Advocacy Standards (See Figure 3.2 and Appendix B)
 Assessment Standards

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Training Models and Checkilists
 Immersion Activities
 Triad Model: anti and procounselor
 Ponterotto, Alexander, and Grieger Checklist to assess
whether or not minimum standards for training in
multicultural counseling is being met



Professional Association: AMCD



Knowledge of Legal Trends

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Working with culturally different clients….“is an active
process, that it is ongoing, and that it is a process that never
reaches an end point. Implicit is recognition of the
complexity and diversity of the client and client populations,
and acknowledgment of our own personal limitations and
the need to always improve” (Sue & Sue, 1999, p. 227).

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