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The world of the Counselor An introduction to the counseling profession 5e chapter 9

Chapter 9: Development Across the Lifespan
Chapter 10: Abnormal Development, Diagnosis and
Psychopharmacology
Chapter 11: Career Development: The Counselor and
the World of Work

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Development Across the Lifespan

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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A Little Background
 Counseling has long had a development focus
 1980s ushered in the “true” era of developmental
counseling
▪ CACREP: 1981—part of core curriculum
▪ Developmental models challenge us to look at clients
from a wellness perspective

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Development is continual
Development is orderly, sequential, and builds upon
itself
Development implies change, but our core remains
the same
Development is painful, yet growth-producing
Developmental models are transtheoretical
Development is preventive, optimistic, and wellnessoriented

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Development in Childhood
 Children develop at fairly predictable rates
 Know development, and you know when some children

may be having difficulties– can refer them
 Rate of children’s physical developmental is fairly
consistent
 However, scope of child’s development is a function of
genetic predisposition in interaction with environment
(see Figure 9.1, p. 295)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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A series of developmental transitions
 Physical and psychological aspects of puberty
 Sexuality
 Planning future
 Intimacy and commitment
 College or work?
 Career choices
 Slow decline of physical abilities
 Physical and psychological issues related to growing older,
death, and dying

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
 Some key terms
▪ Schemata (see Box 9.1, p. 297)
▪ Assimilation
▪ Accommodation
 Stages
▪ Sensorimotor (birth through 2)
▪ Preoperational Stage (Ages 2-7)
▪ Concrete-operational Stage (Ages 7-11)
▪ Formal-operational Stage (Ages 11-16)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
 See Box 9.3, p. 302 (Heinz Dilemma)
 Preconventional Level (Approx. Ages 2-7)
▪ Stage 1- punishment-obedience orientation
▪ Stage 2- instrumental-hedonism orientation
 Conventional Level (Approx. Ages 8-13)
▪ Stage 3- good girl-nice boy orientation
▪ Stage 4- law and order orientation
 Postconventional Level (Approx. Age 13+)
▪ Stage 5-social contract orientation
▪ Stage 6- principled conscience orientation
 See Box 9.3

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Gilligan's Stages of Women's Moral Development
 (Book “In a different voice”)
 Preconventional Level Girl

▪ Narcissistic Reasoning; Functions from selfprotective/survival perspective
▪ Conventional Level Woman

▪ Puts needs of others before needs of self
▪ Postconventional Level
 Balance between care/responsibility for others and selfcare
 Comparison of Cognitive and Moral Development
(See Table 9.1, p. 304)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Kegan's Constructive Developmental Model (Subject-Object
Theory)
 Incorporative Stage: All reflexive—no sense of self
 Impulsive Stage : Limited control over actions
 Imperial Stage: Impulses can be controled, but controlled in
narcissistic way to get needs met
 Interpersonal Stage: Embedded in relationships.Very beginning
sense of self and of other
 Institutional Stage: Very strong sense of self-authorship
 Interindividual Stage: Mutuality. Share of “selves,” difference is
tolerated and understood, self-reflective
▪ See Box 9.5, p. 306

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Perry's Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development
 Dualism: Black and white thinking, Authorities have the
answer, little tolerance for ambiguity
 Relativism: Many ways to define truth. Understanding that
there are differing perspectives on truth, ambivalent about
what values to call one’s own
 Commitment in Relativism: Understanding and empathy
for different kinds of “truth.” Committed to certain values,
but willing to question self throughout life.
 See Box 9.5. Discuss how Malcom X can be used to explain
Kegan and Perry

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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ERIKSON'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT (SEE TABLE 9.2, P. 307)









Trust V. Mistrust (Birth to 1 Year)……………….
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Ages 1-2)…..
Initiative vs. Guilt (Ages 3-5)……………………..
Industry vs. Inferiority (Ages 6-11)………….….
Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)…..
Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early Adulthood)……..
Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
…………………………………….……..
Integrity vs. Despair (Later Life)………………..

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

VIRTUE

Hope
Will
Purpose
Competence
Fidelity
Love
Caring
Wisdom

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Seasons of a Man’s/Woman’s Life (Daniel and Judy Levinson)
 Four Eras (see Figure 9.2, p. 308; Box 9.6, p. 309)
1. Pre-adulthood
3. Middle Adulthood
2. Early Adulthood
4. Late Adulthood
Eras preceded by transitional periods and followed by periods
that reflect unique issues or life structures
Gender splitting: Traditional stereotypes were the
centerpoint for the struggles of men and women
 For example
▪ Men: Men: settling into a relationship
▪ Women: Motherhood and a career

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Fowler
 Stage 0, Primal Faith (Infancy)
 Stage 1, Intuitive-Projective Faith (Min. Age 4)
 Stage 2, Mythic-Literal Faith (6 1/2 - 8)
 Stage 3, Synthetic-Conventional Faith (12-13)
 Stage 4, Individuative-Reflective Faith (18-19)
 Stage 5, Conjunctive Faith (30-32)
 Stage 6, Universalizing Faith (38-40)
 See Box 9.7



Other Developmental Theories?

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Applying Knowledge of Development
 Can assist clients in making smooth transitions
 Can help clients see how they view the world
 Can help clients understand what drives them
 Can refer to developmental experts when needed
 Can view expected, but difficult transitions as normal, not
pathological



Graph that Compares Developmental Models: Fig. 9.3, p. 314

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Bias in Developmental Models
 Mostly developed by White males
 Most of the research based on White males (until late
1990s)
 What might these models look like if social class, ethnicity,
culture, and gender would have been taken into account
 Do they apply cross-culturally?

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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How we come to understand our cultural/ethnic background
can be seen from a developmental perspective
Models of cultural/ethnic development will be reviewed in
Chapter 14
Assessing the cultural/ethnic identity of our clients can help
us work more effectively with them

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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ACA Code: A Developmental Emphasis
 From preamble: “ACA members are dedicated to the
enhancement of human development throughout the
life span”



Professional associations that specifically focus on
development: AADA, C-AHEAD



Legal issue: Sometimes, counselors are so “positive”
that they miss pathology. This can lead to malpractice.

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Understanding Your Own Development
 It’s important to understand our own developmental
process—especially when we’re going through a transition
phase
 Be open to examining your development

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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