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The world of the Counselor An introduction to the counseling profession 5e chapter 8

Consultation and Supervision

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Consultation Defined
 “[consultation is] me and you talking about him or her
with the purpose of some change” (Fall, 1995, p. 151).
 “When a professional (the consultant), who has
specialized expertise, meets with one or more other
professionals to improve the professionals’ work with
current or potential” (p. 258)
 See all different kinds of consultation pp. 258-259
(bulleted)
 See Figure 8.1, p. 259
 Consultants intervene at the primary prevention,
secondary prevention, and tertiary levels.

 Consultation is developmental and systemic

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Beginning
 1940s and 1950s:
▪ Consultant as “expert”
▪ Direct-service approach: The consultee and consultant
have little contact. Consultant pretty left to his or her own
devices to solve the problem.
 End of 1950s, consultee included in process
 A little later, consultant asked to train others and

“give away” his or her expertise to staff
 Latter part of twentieth century: Expansion of
Models of Consultation
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Consultant-Centered
 Expert consultant
 Prescriptive consultant (doctor-patient mode)
 Trainer and/or educator consultant
System-Centered
 Collaborative Consultation
 Facilitative Consultation
 Process-oriented consultant

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning


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Most theories of counseling could be applied to consultation.
When choosing a theory one should consider:
 The fit of the theory with your personality style
 Whether the theory will work with the problem at hand
Some theories that have been used include
 Person-centered
 Learning Theory (behavioral, cognitive, modeling)
 Gestalt
 Psychoanalytic
 Social Constructionist
 Chaos

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Stage 1: Pre-entry
Stage 2:Entry, Problem Exploration, and Contracting
Stage 3: Information Gathering, Problem Confirmation, and
Goal Setting
Stage 4: Solution Searching and Intervention Selection
Stage 5: Evaluation
Stage 6: Termination

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Consultation and the College Counselor
 See kinds of college consulting, pp. 265-266
 Cooper (2003) cube model (see Figure 8.2, p. 266)



Consultation and the Agency Counselor
 Gerald Caplan
▪ Consulting Outward
▪ Consulting Inward (See Box 8.1, p. 268)



The School Counselor as Consultant
 See kinds of school counseling consultation, pp. 220-221

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Supervision Defined
 An intensive, extended, and evaluative interpersonal
relationship in which a senior member of a profession
▪ enhances the professional skills of a junior person
▪ ensures quality services to clients
▪ provides a gate-keeping
 Not therapy, but can be therapeutic
 A Systemic Perspective
▪ Supervisor (supervisee/counselor) client
▪ Also, client can affect family, community, world?
 Parallel process (Box 8.2, p. 271)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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 “. . . counselors who are trained to oversee the professional

clinical work of counselors and counselors-in-training.”
 Trained in characteristics identified by the Standards of
Counseling Supervisors (ACES, 1990) (see p. 272)
 Supervisor:
▪ ensures welfare of the client
▪ meets regularly with supervisee
▪ oversees clinical and professional development of supervisee
▪ evaluates the supervisee
▪ is empathic, flexible, genuine, open, concerned, and
supportive
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Supervisor:
 ensures welfare of the client
 meets regularly with supervisee
 oversees clinical and professional development of
supervisee
 evaluates the supervisee
 is empathic flexible, genuine, open, concerned, and
supportive

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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. . . a professional counselor or counselor-in-training whose
counseling work or clinical skill development is being overseen in
a formal supervisory relationship by a qualified trained
professional. (ACA, 2005, glossary)
A person who will experience some resistance at some point in
supervision. Amount and kind the result of:
 Attachment and trust with supervisor
 Supervisor style
 Supervisee sensitivity to feedback
 Amount of countertransference (see Figure 8.3, p. 273)
 Developmental level of supervisee
 Supervisor characteristics

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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 Individual, Triadic, or Group Supervision?
 Models of:

▪ Developmental Models: Integrated Developmental
Model (see Table 8.1, p. 275; Figure 8.4, p. 276)
▪ Psychotherapy-Based Models
▪ Integrative Models (Meta-theory Models)
▪ Bernard’s Discrimination Model (see Table 8.2, p. 277)
▪ Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR)
 See questions, top of page 278

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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GRADUATE STUDENTS

PROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS

 In “Skills” Classes



 In Practicum, Internship



 Recording



 Feedback (e.g., bug-in-the-ear)



 Case notes

Professional responsibility
Professional growth
Part of job?
Pay for it on your own?

 One-way mirrors
 E-mail, real-time video linkups,

Skype

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Multicultural Consultation Within a System
 Important to understand cultural differences within a
system
 Know own biases, know other cultures, know kinds of
intervention strategies for systems
 Consultant can advocate for change by empowering those
who may be oppressed in a system and helping others in
the system find new ways to those who are different from
them

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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1. Be up to speed on how multicultural issues affect supervision
2. Be aware of and address how issues of diversity affect the

supervisory relationship
3. Model cross-cultural sensitivity
4. Be willing to ask supervisees about their cultural background
5. Be open to discussing cross-cultural differences with
supervisees
6. Be aware of how power and privilege may affect the
supervisory relationship

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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7. Help supervisees see how power and privilege may affect

their counseling relationships
8. Assist supervisees in being able to conceptualize clients from
a multicultural perspective
9. Be able to build a strong working alliance with your
supervisee
10.Have and share your knowledge and skills specifi c to crosscultural issues
11.Be a model and provide examples of social advocacy
12.Be able to use models of cross-cultural supervision (e.g.,
Ancis & Ladany, 2001; Ober, Grannello, & Henfi eld, 2009)
© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Ethical Issues in Consulting (Section B.8 and D.2 of ACA
ethics code):
 Agreements
 Respect for Privacy
 Growth toward Self-Driection
 Disclosure of Confidential Information
 Multiple Relationships
 Informed Consent
 Consultant Competency
 Understanding the Consultee

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Ethical Issues in the Supervisory Relationship
 Supervisor Preparation
 Client Welfare
 Informed Consent
 Multicultural Issues
 Relationship Boundaries
 Sexual Relationships
 Dual and Multiple Relationships
 Responsibility to Clients
 Limitations of Supervisees
 Evaluation and Accountability
 Endorsement

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Professional Issues: Professional Association
 Join ACES?
▪ Journal of Counselor Education and Supervision



Legal Issue: Liability in Consultation and Supervision
 Tarasoff

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Committed to Ongoing Consultation and Supervision

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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