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The world of the Counselor An introduction to the counseling profession 5e chapter 3

Standards in the Profession:
Ethics, Accreditation, Credentialing, and Multicultural/Social
Justice Competences

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Defining Values, Ethics, Morality, and Their Relationship to
the Law
 Morality
 Ethics
 See Table 3.1, p. 68: What Do Counselors Think Is Ethical?

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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The Development of and Need for Ethical Codes
 ACA, APA, and NASW developed codes in 1950s and 1960s
 Similar in nature
 They change because society changes and values of
associations change as society changes
 Purposes of (See p. 67)
 Problems with (See p. 69)

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Codes of Ethics in Helping Professionals
 ACA 2005 Code (summary, pp. 69-71), Sections:
▪ A: The Counseling Relationship
▪ B: Confidentiality, Privileged Communication, and Privacy
▪ C. Professional Responsibility
▪ D. Relationships with Other Professionals
▪ E. Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation
▪ F. Supervision, Training, and Teaching
▪ G: Research and Publication
▪ H. Resolving Ethical Issues

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Related Codes
 Divisions and Affiliates
of ACA:
▪ AMHCA

▪ ASCA
▪ IAMFC
▪ NBCC
▪ CRCC

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning



Related Codes (Besides ACA and
related associations)
▪ APA: American Psychological
Association
▪ NASW
▪ AAMFT
▪ APA: American Psychiatric
Association
▪ NOHS

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Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Models of Ethical DecisionMaking
 Problem-Solving Models (E.g., Corey’s 8 step model (p. 72)
 Moral Models (Principle and Virtue Ethics)
▪ Principled Ethics (e.g., Kitchener)
▪ Autonomy
▪ Beneficence
▪ Nonmaleficence
▪ Justice or fairness
▪ Fidelity
▪ Veracity

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Models of Ethical Decision-Making
 Moral Models (Principle and Virtue Ethics) (Cont’d)
▪ Virtue Ethics (e.g., Mear, Schmidt, and Day)
 Virtuous counselors are:
 Prudent, maintain integrity, respectful, and benevolent
 They understand the profession and the community
 They are self-aware, compassionate, understanding of
cultural differences, motivated to do good and have a vision
concerning the decisions that are made.

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Models of Ethical DecisionMaking (Cont’d)
 Social Constructionist Perspective
▪ Knowledge in codes is intersubjective, changeable, and
open to interpretation.
▪ Realities socially constructed
▪ Postmodern perspective
▪ Language subtly affects culture, especially
disproportionately the underclass
▪ Don’t expect answers to come from codes

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Models of Ethical DecisionMaking (Cont’d)
 Developmental Models
▪ Perry and Kegan
▪ Differences between “lower” vs “higher” levels
▪ Lower level counselors are more rigid, higher more
flexible and self-reflective
▪ Dualists vs. Relativists
▪ See Box 3.1, p. 75
Summary of Ethical Decision-Making Models (p. 76).

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Ethical Hot Spots (See Table 3.2, pp. 73 to Compare
AMCHA, ASCA, ACA)
 Confidentiality
 Competence
 Dual Relationships
 Inappropriate fee Assessment
 Informed Consent
 Misrepresentation of credentials
 Sexual relationships with clients
 Report abuse,
 Transmission of Values

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Reporting Ethical Violations
 Section H of ACA Code
 Try to resolve by going directly to counselor
▪ (See Box 3.2 pg. 77)
 Do ethics committee have jurisdiction?



Legal Issues Related To Ethical Violations
 Civil and Criminal Liability
 Role of Ethical Codes in Lawsuits
 Malpractice Insurance and Best Practices
▪ See Best Practices on pp. 79-80

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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History and Development of Professional Standards
 1960s: Started to take form
 1981 CACREP officially formed
 2009, most recent standards
 Today, many programs accredited
 Advantages of accreditation

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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History and Development of Professional Standards
 Overview of CACPREP Standards (as of 2013):
▪ Clinical Mental Health Counseling: 60 credits
▪ School counseling: 48 credits
▪ Student affairs and college counseling: 48 credits
▪ Addiction counseling: 60 credits
▪ Marriage, couple, and family counseling: 60 credits
▪ Also sets standards in many areas of program functioning
 Other Accrediting Bodies: CORE, APA, CSWE, COAMFTE

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Types of:
 Registration
 Certification
 Licensure



Credentialing in Related Professions
 Social Workers: ACSW, ACSW, DCSW, LCSW
 Licensed Psychologists (Counseling, Clinical, Psy.D.)

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Credentialing in Related Professions (Cont’d)
 Psychiatrist
▪ First become licensed physician in state
▪ Later becomes “Board Certified” in Specialty Area (e.g.,
psychiatry—a national exam).
 Marriage and Family Therapy Licensure:
▪ Sometimes use AAMFT curriculum
▪ Sometimes based on counseling boards
▪ IAMFC: National Certification (CFT)
 Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse (Basic and Advanced.
▪ Advanced: APRN

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Credentialing for Counselors
 Certifications
▪ CRC through CRCC
▪ NCC through NBCC
▪ Subspecialty of NCC: NCSC, CCMHC, MAC
▪ National Credentialing Academy: CFT

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Credentialing for Counselors (Cont’d)
 Counselor Licensure
▪ All 50 states plus Puerto Rico, and DC
▪ State process: Usually 60 credits, 2 years post master’s
supervision, and exam
▪ Lobbying for Credentialing and Counseling-Related
Issues
▪ Our “dues” help this happen

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Multicultural Counseling Competencies
 Originally developed by Sue et al. (1992)
 Adopted first by AMCD, then by ACA
 See Figure 3.1, p. 89

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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Advocacy Competences
 Grew out of a number of parallel processes
▪ Transforming School Counseling initiative
▪ Advocating for licensure
▪ Generally movement toward social justice issues in the
field
▪ 2003: ACA Endorsed Advocacy Competencies
▪ See Figure 3.2, p. 90

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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We have come a long way in 50 or so years
 Many ethical codes: ACA, AMHCA, ASCA, Others?
 Multicultural Counseling Competencies
 Advocacy Competencies
 Credentials
 There are many “pros” to the above, but are there some
“cons” too



The Counselor in Process: A Lifelong Commitment to
Professionalism

© 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning

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