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A topical approach to life span development, 6e chapter 5

Infancy
Chapter 5


Cognitive Development



Piaget's Theory



How biology and experience sculpts cognitive development



Children construct their own cognitive worlds and have systematic changes
in their thinking


Piaget's Cognitive Processes




Schemes- the brain creates actions (infants) or mental representations (child) that
organize knowledge



Baby schemes are simple actions that can be performed like sucking, looking,
and grasping (sucking a bottle)



Older Child schemes are strategies and plans for solving problems (opening a
door to get a toy)



Adult schemes (driving a car)


Piaget's Cognitive Processes


Assimilation-the child uses existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences




Child sucks bottle and fingers to eat

Accommodation -the child adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into
account




Child sucks bottle to eat but learns to grab finger to play

Organization- the child groups isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order, smoothly

functional system



Refining behaviors and organizing knowledge


Piaget's Cognitive Processes



Equilibration- children shift from one stage of thought to the next



As they constantly assimilate and accommodate to seek equilibrium from
disequilibrium


Piaget



Piaget's Theory- (first stage) Sensorimotor Stage




6 substages

Object Permanence



By the end of the sensorimotor stage



Objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen heard,or
touched by the child



Piaget calls a 'landmark cognitive accomplishment


How infants learn, remember and
conceptualize



Operant Conditioning- consequences of a behavior reduce changes in the probability of the
behavior's occurrence



Habituation- decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the
stimulus




Dishabituation- the increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation

Infants attention is strongly governed by novelty and habituation


How infants learn, remember and
conceptualize



Attention- the focusing of mental resources on select information and
improves cognitive processing



Important role in memory as part of the a process called encoding ....



The process by which information is transferred to memory


How infants learn, remember and
conceptualize



Memory-the retention of information over time



Implicit memory- memory refers to memory without conscious recollection




Memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically

Explicit memory-referees to conscious remembering of facts and experiences


How infants learn, remember and
conceptualize



Imitation (Meltzoff)



Infants don't blindly imitate everything they see



Beginning at birth there is an interplay between learning by observing and
learning by doing


How infants learn, remember and
conceptualize



Concepts -key aspects of infants' cognitive development



Cognitive groupings of similar objects, people, or ideals



Mandler - 7-9 months of age-infants form conceptual categories


Measures of Development



Gesell's scale-distinguishes normal and abnormal infants




Provides a developmental quotient

Developmental quotient (DQ) -an overall score that combines sub scores in
motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesellschaft
assessment of infants


Measures of Development



Bayley Scale - assess infant behavior and predict later development




Mental Scale, Motor Scale, Behavior Profile

Baylee-III - 5 Scales



Cognitive, Language, Motor (infant related)



Socioemotional and Adaptive (Caregiver)


Language Development


Rule Systems (figure 5.9)



Phonology - a Phoneme is the smallest sound unit in a language



Morphology - a morphemes, meaningful units involved in word formation



Syntax - the way words are combined and/or ordered to form acceptable phrases and sentences



Semantics- meaningful words and sentences



Pragmatic so- the system of using appropriate conversation and knowledge of how to effectively use
language in content


Language Development


Language Milestones (figure 5.12)



Crying (birth)



Cooing begins (1-2 months)



Understanding first word (5 months)



Babbling begins (6 months)



Language specific-listener (7-11 months)



Uses gesters, such as pointing, comprehension of words (8-12 months)



First word spoken(13 MONTHS)



Vocabulary spurt starts (18 MONTHS)



Two word utterances (18-24 months)


Language Influences



Biological view- Children are born with ability to detect basic features and rules of language



Behaviorist view- children acquire language as a result of reinforcements (still not proven)



Environmental view-children development of langurs is a consequence of being exposed to different language environments
in the home




Parents should talk extensively with an infant, especially about what the baby is attending to.

Interactionist View- Social and linguistics capacities make language acquisition inevitable.



All agree that both biological capacity and relevant experience are necessary.


Parental Influences
(page 161)


Be an active conversational partner.



Talk in a slowed-down pace and don't worry about how you sound to other adults when you talk to your baby.



Use parent-look and parent-gesters, and name what you are looking at.



When



Play games



Remember to listen.



Expand and elaborate language abilities and horizons with infants and toddlers.



Adjust to your child's idiosyncrasies instead of working against them.

you talk with infants and toddlers, be simple, concrete, and repetitive.



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