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The transformed school counselor chapter 10

Working with Special
Needs Students
The Transformed School Counselor
Chapter 10

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Providing for the Instructional
Needs of all Students


All school personnel should be sensitive to the time needed
to learn, especially for students who struggle to achieve a
level of minimum proficiency.



Learning ability is distinct to the individual; each child has
unique talents, skills, and limitations.




Each student acquires and applies information differently.



Effective educators challenge all students to focus on their
strengths and overcome the obstacles that are inhibiting
their ability to learn.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


A Social Justice Agenda


Learning ability is a student’s capacity to
master a skill, task, or concept while the
term disability describes a student’s
incapability to accomplish the same skills,
task, or concept in certain situations.



School counselors can ensure that students
with learning differences are treated with
the same respect as the students who are
considered part of the mainstream.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Response to Intervention








a framework for organizing, allocating, and
evaluating educational resources to meet the
instructional needs of all students.
integrates assessment and intervention within a
multilevel prevention system to maximize student
achievement and to reduce behavior problems.
a multitiered approach to help struggling learners.
targets instruction with the appropriate levels of
time and support.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Response to Intervention
RtI and Special Education


Eligibility for special education can occur when
a student’s response to both the core instruction
and supplemental interventions still does not result
in achieving grade-level objectives such as
academic benchmarks or expected peer
performance levels.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Response to Intervention
A Multitiered Approach






Tier 1
 Is the teacher’s approach to providing a quality
grade-level curriculum to ALL students.
Tier 2
 Targets students in need of additional support and
focuses on identified learning needs.
Tier 3
 Is intensive support and ensures that every student
who needs it receives it in addition to the core
instruction.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Response to Intervention
The School Counselor’s Role in RtI is to:
 assist teachers with differentiated instructional
service delivery, closely monitor student progress,
and use data to make informed decisions.
 participate in the identification process of students
who are struggling in the core academic areas.
 serve as advocates for parents and/or families to
best understand what RtI services are and how to
maximize the instruction given in school.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


RtI and the ASCA National Model
Foundation


The faculty, administration, and students collaborate with
the school counselor to identify which standards and
competencies are needed by the students as the program is
delivered, managed, and assessed for impact.

Delivery



As with classroom instruction, some students will need
additional “reinforcement” or group counseling, while a
few students may require Tier 3 support through individual
counseling.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


RtI and the ASCA National
Model, cont’d.
System Support


School counselors can use the collaborative consultation
process with teachers and extend it to the parent/family
members, utilizing everyone’s expertise.

Management System



Managing data, developing action plans, and organizing
the delivery of strategies through the use of calendars and
counseling logs are some examples of school-counselorled activities that complement Tier 1, 2, and 3
interventions.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


RtI and the ASCA National Model
Accountability System
 When RtI is aligned with the ASCA National
Model and MEASURE, school counselors
demonstrate their commitment to an effective,
efficient, data-driven, and highly collaborative
process.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Positive Behavior Intervention
Supports (PBIS)


PBIS is the application of the RtI framework for the
prevention of behavior difficulties.
 Tier 1 - A school-wide behavioral plan.
 Tier 2 - Working with at-risk students on problem
behaviors.
 Tier 3 - Specific, individual interventions for highrisk students.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Special Education




Special education began with institutions that identified,
segregated, and controlled children whose disabilities were seen
as difficult or dangerous.
The disability rights movement started between the 1960s and
the 1980s.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Education for All Handicapped
Children Act of 1975




The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975),
later renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA),
required states to provide a “free and appropriate education” for
all children between the ages of 3 and 21, regardless of the
handicapping condition or disability.
The Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is the written record
of the needs of each student and the procedures to provide
services.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Special Education and School
Improvement Agendas
IDEA

focuses on the performance of individual students in an
array of areas, while the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is more
interested in system-wide outcomes.
Under

NCLB and IDEA a school can be identified as in need of
improvement when it fails to meet standards for students with
disabilities.
Blueprint for Reform
Blueprint

for Reform requires school personnel to provide a wide
range of resources and support to ensure that all students have the
opportunity to succeed in college and in a career.
The

blueprint also increases support for inclusion and encourages
the use of assessments.
©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


The Over Identification Debate
 Learning disabilities is by far the largest category of





special education.
Some criticism has been leveled against the teachers.
Social and cultural changes, such as poverty, may
have raised children’s vulnerability to developing
learning disabilities.
Black students have been overrepresented in special
education for the past three decades.
Also a higher percentage of males are identified for
special education.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Procedural Steps in Special
Education Placement
1.

Giving Parents/Guardians Notice

2.

Evaluation

3.

What the Notice Must Contain

4.

Timeframe for Initial Evaluation

5.

The Scope of Evaluation

6.

Review Existing Data

7.

Determine Eligibility

8.

Triennial Evaluations

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Inclusion





Inclusion involves integrating students with
disabilities into the traditional mainstream
classroom setting.
The goal is to make life for those with disabilities
as culturally normative as possible.
School counselors have a responsibility to seek
not only the least restrictive environment but also
provide to every student the most challenging
educational opportunity possible.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


The Dominant Classification:
Learning Disabilities





A specific learning disability is a disorder in one or more
of the basic psychological processes involved in
understanding or using language, which may manifest
itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read,
write, spell, or do mathematical calculations (USDOE,
2004).
Genetic, teratogenic, or medical factors may contribute to
learning disabilities.
Learning disabilities are manifested frequently in reading,
specifically decoding, fluency, and comprehension.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Section 504 of the Rehabilitation
Act of 1973


It was the first congressional action to mandate that
individuals with disabilities could not be discriminated
against or denied benefit by any program receiving federal
funding solely based on being disabled.



Also applies to the provision of students whose disabilities
are not severe enough to warrant classification but could
benefit from supportive services and classroom
modification.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


The School Counselor’s Role in the Special
Education Identification Process
School counselor should provide support in the
referral process, but should not have the dominant
responsibility.
Eligibility


First a student must be identified as having a
disability under the definition established by
Section 504.



The provisions in Section 504 regulate four areas:
pre-placement evaluation, evaluation, placement,
and revaluation.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.


Supporting Every Student’s Right
to a Quality Education






School counselors advocate for students with
disabilities, create a healthy climate in the schools,
and serve as an essential resource for students,
teachers, parents, and administrators.
School counselors have an ethical responsibility to
not stray beyond the bounds of their training to
take on inappropriate administrative or
supervisory responsibilities.
School counselors use group management skills to
facilitate the work of the IEP team.

©2012 Cengage Learning. These materials are designed for classroom use and can be used for educational purposes only. Reproduction for commercial use is in violation of
copyright laws.



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