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Consumer behavior and marketing strategy 12e hawkins motherbaugh chapter 03

CHAPTER

03

The Changing American
Society:
Values

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


PART II: EXTERNAL INFLUENCES

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Learning Objectives

Understand core American cultural values


L01
L01
Summarize changes in self, environment, and other-oriented values

L02
L02
Discuss values as they relate to green marketing

L03
L03
Discuss values as they relate to cause-related marketing

L04
L04
Discuss values as they relate to marketing to gay and lesbian consumers

L05
L05
Discuss values as they relate to gender-based marketing

L06
L06
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Consumer Behavior In The News…
Are Women More Loyal Than Men?



Gender differences exist across various consumption behaviors.



Who do you think is more loyal?






Men



Women

Why?

Source: V. Melnyk et al., “Are Women More Loyal Customers Than Men?,” Journal of Marketing, July 2009, pp. 82-96.

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Consumer Behavior In The News…
Are Women More Loyal Than Men?







Who do you think is more loyal?



Men – yes sometimes



Women – yes sometimes

HMM? So, if you said it depends you are right!



Women more loyal to employees (bank teller)



Men more loyal to company (the bank itself)

WHY? Women focus more on close “individual” relationships than men

Source: V. Melnyk et al., “Are Women More Loyal Customers Than Men?,” Journal of Marketing, July 2009, pp. 82-96.

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Changes in American Cultural Values

Cultural values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
Observable shifts in behavior, including consumption behavior, often reflect underlying shifts in
cultural values.
Therefore, it is necessary to understand the underlying value shifts in order to understand current
and future consumer behavior.

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Changes in American Cultural Values
Traditional, Current, and Emerging American Values

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Changes in American Cultural Values

Self-Oriented Values
Environment-Oriented Values
Other-Oriented Values

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Changes in American Cultural Values
Self-Oriented Values

Religious/Secular
Sensual Gratification/Abstinence
Postponed/Immediate Gratification
Hard work/Leisure
Material/Nonmaterial
Active/Passive

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Changes in American Cultural Values

Environment-Oriented Values

Prescribe a society’s relationship to its economic and technical as well as its
physical environment.

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Changes in American Cultural Values
Environment-Oriented Values

Cleanliness
Tradition/Change
Risk Taking/Security
Problem Solving/Fatalistic
Admire/Overcome Nature
Performance/Status

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Changes in American Cultural Values

Other-Oriented Values

Reflect a society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals
and groups within that society.

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Changes in American Cultural Values
Other-Oriented Values

Individual/Collective
Diversity/Uniformity
Limited/Extended
Youth/Age
Competition/Cooperation
Masculine/Feminine

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Marketing Strategy and Values

Green Marketing
Cause-Related Marketing
Marketing to Gay and Lesbian Consumers
Gender-Based Marketing

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Green Marketing
(1) developing products whose production, use, or disposal is less harmful
to the environment than the traditional versions of the product;
(2) developing products that have a positive impact on the environment; or
(3) tying the purchase of a product to an environmental organization or
event.

Elemental LED provides environmentally-friendly efficient lighting products

YouTube Spotlight

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Green Marketing

Shades of Green Market Segments
As we saw earlier, values related to the environment vary across consumers. Marketers must adapt.

Some highly motivated overall and will pay more for eco-friendly

•Eco-Centrists and Respectful Stewards
Some motivated by efficiency, practicality, and family



Proud Traditionalists and Frugal Earth Mothers

Some very dismissive of environmental concerns



Eco-Villians

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Green Marketing and Regulation

The FTC has updated its Green Guides relating to environmental claims.

Some key elements of the

revised guides include:



qualifying claims



third-party certifications and seals

Thus, firms must avoid greenwashing – promoting environmental benefits that are unsubstantiated and on
which they don’t deliver.

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Video Application

The following Video Clip discusses how the Toyota Prius entered the
car the hybrid car market.

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Cause-Related Marketing (CRM)
Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) is marketing that
ties a company and its products to an issue or cause
with the goal of improving sales or corporate image
while providing benefits to the cause.

Orvis Catalog Commercial and its CRM Program for Dogs

YouTube Spotlight

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Applications of Consumer Behavior

CRM or Social Marketing?

You Decide!

Courtesy Ford. Warriors in Pink. Powered by Ford.

http://www.fordcares.com/.

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Marketing to Gay and Lesbian Consumers

The gay market is estimated to be approximately 7%
of the adult U.S. population, or approx. 16 million
people over age18.
The purchase power of the gay market has been
estimated at $750 - $900 billion.

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Marketing to Gay and Lesbian Consumers

Many companies find the gay market to be a
highly attractive segment.
Product and communication issues are major
considerations.

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Marketing to Gay and Lesbian Consumers
Product and Communication Issues Include:

Does the product need to be modified to meet the needs of this market?

Should the firm advertise in gay-oriented media using its standard ads?

Should it advertise in gay media using ads with gay themes?
To what extent should the firm be involved in gay community activities?

Should its ads in mainstream media include gay themes?

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Gender-Based Marketing

Gender Identity versus Gender Roles
Ascribed versus Achievement Roles
Traditional versus Modern Gender Orientation

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