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Business and society ethics sustainability and stakeholder management 9e chapter 1

© 2015 Cengage Learning

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Chapter 1

The Business and
Society
Relationship

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Learning Outcomes
1. Characterize business and society and their interrelationships.
2. Describe pluralism and identify its attributes, strengths, and
3.
4.

5.
6.

weaknesses.
Clarify how a pluralistic society becomes a special-interest
society.
Identify, discuss, and illustrate the factors leading up to
business criticism.
Pinpoint the major criticisms of business and characterize
business’s general response.
Describe the major themes of the book: managerial approach,
ethics, sustainability and stakeholder management.
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Chapter Outline











Business and Society
Society as the Macroenvironment
A Pluralistic Society
A Special-Interest Society
Business Criticism and Corporate Response
Focus of the Book
Structure of the Book
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
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Business and Society
Business •the collection of private, commercially oriented
organizations ranging in size from one-person
proprietorships to corporate giants.

Society •a community, a nation, or a broad group of people with
common traditions, values, institutions, and collective
activities and interests.

Macroenvironment •the total environment outside the firm, the comprehensive
societal context in which the organization resides.

Society
•is the macroenvironment in which businesses operate.
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Conceptualizing the
Macroenvironment

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Segments of the Macroenvironment

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A Pluralistic Society • Prevents power from being concentrated in the
hands of a few.
• Maximizes freedom of expression and action,
and strikes a balance between monism, on the
one hand, and anarchy on the other.
• Creates a widely diversified set of loyalties to
many organizations, and minimizes the danger
that a leader of any one organization will be left
uncontrolled.
• Provides a built-in set of checks and balances,
in that groups can exert power over one another
with no single organization (business or
government) dominating and becoming overly
influential.
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Business and Stakeholder
Relationships

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Special Interest Groups •







Make life more complex for business and
government.
Can number in the tens of thousands in some
societies.
Pursue their own focused agendas.
Are active, intense, diverse and focused.
Can attract a significant following.
Often work at cross purposes, with no unified
goals.
A special-interest society is pluralism taken to
the extreme.
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Social Environment, Business Criticism
and Corporate Response
Affluence

Education

Awareness

Factors in the Social Environment
Rising Expectations

Rights Movement
Victimization
Philosophy

Entitlement
Mentality
Business Criticism

Increased Concern for the
Societal Environment

A Changed Social Contract
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Factors in the Social Environment
Affluence and Education •Create higher expectations of major institutions.
•Growing public awareness through television,
movies, and the Internet.

The Revolution of rising expectations creates a social problem, a gap between societal
expectations for social conditions and social realities.
This can lead to:
• Entitlement mentality
• Rights movement
• Victimization philosophy
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Society’s Expectations Versus
Business’ Actual Social Performance

Social Performance:
Expected and Actual

Society’s
Expectations
of Business
Performance

Social Problem

Social
Problem

1960s

Business’s Actual
Social Performance

Time
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2010s
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Business Criticism:
Use and Abuse of Power
Business Power •the ability or capacity to produce an effect or
to bring influence to bear on a situation or
people
Iron Law of Responsibility •In the long run, those who do not use power
in a manner society considers responsible will
tend to lose it
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Levels and Spheres of
Corporate Power
Levels
Spheres

Macro
Level

Intermediate
Level

Micro
Level

Individual
Level

The business
system

Several firms

A single firm

A Single Executive

Economic
Social/Cultural
Individual
Technological
Environmental
Political
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Elements in the Social Contract
Laws or Regulations:
“Rules of the Game”
Business

Two-Way
Shared Understandings
of Each Other

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Society or
Societal
Stakeholder
Groups

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Focus of the Book
Managerial
Approach

Business
Ethics

Sustainability

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Stakeholder
Management

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A Managerial Approach






Managers are practical, and have begun to
deal with social and ethical concerns in ways
similar to those they use to manage traditional
business functions such as marketing, finance,
operations, & risk management.
As a result, managers have been able to
convert seemingly unmanageable concerns
into ones that can be dealt with in a balanced
and impartial fashion.
At the same time, managers have had to
integrate traditional economic and financial
considerations with ethical and social
considerations.
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Urgent versus Enduring Issues
Short-Term •Issues or crises arise on the spur of the
moment and management must formulate
quick responses.

Long-Term •Issues or problems are a long-term concern
and management must develop a thoughtful
organizational response.

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A Business Ethics Theme
Ethical questions •inevitably and continually come into play during
business operations.
Ethics •refers to issues of right, wrong, fairness, and
justice.
Business Ethics •focuses on ethical issues that arise in the
commercial realm.
Ethical questions •permeate business’s activities as it attempts to
interact with major stakeholder groups.
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A Sustainability Theme
Sustainability - Has become one of businesses’
most pressing mandates.

Sustainable development - is a pattern of
resource use that aims to meet current needs while
preserving the environment for future generations.

Sustainability embraces criteria which are:




Environmental
Economic
Social

Sustainability concerns the ability of businesses
to survive and thrive over the long term.
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Stakeholder Management Theme
Stakeholders •Individuals or groups with which business interacts
and who have a vested interest in the firm.
•In this text, we consider:
• External stakeholders, such as government,
consumers, the natural environment,
community members
• Internal stakeholders, such as employees,
those involved in corporate governance, and
others.

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Structure of the Book (1 of 2)
Part One: Business, Society, and Stakeholders
1. The Business and Society Relationship
2. Corporate Citizenship: Social Responsibility, Performance and
Sustainability
3. The Stakeholder Approach to Business, Society, and Ethics

Part Two: Corporate Governance & Strategic Management Issues
4. Corporate Governance: Foundational Issues
5. Strategic Management and Corporate Public Policy
6. Issue, Risk and Crisis Management

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Structure of the Book (2 of 2)
Part Three: Business Ethics and Management
7. Business Ethics Fundamentals
8. Personal and Organizational Ethics
9. Business Ethics and Technology
10. Ethical Issues in the Global Arena

Part Four: External Stakeholder Issues
11. Business, Government, and Regulation
12. Business Influence on Government and Public Policy
13. Consumer Stakeholders: Information Issues and Responses
14. Consumer Stakeholders: Product and Service Issues
15. Sustainability and the Natural Environment
16. Business and Community Stakeholders
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Organization and Flow of the Book
Part Five: Internal Stakeholder Issues
17. Employee Stakeholders and Workplace Issues
18. Employee Stakeholders: Privacy, Safety, and Health
19. Employment Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Cases

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