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Tài liệu ôn thi tiếng anh lớp 12 tham khảo (4)

UNIT 2

CULTURAL DIVERSITY
1. Ngữ âm:
Cách phát âm đuôi ‘ed’:
a) Phát âm là /ɪd/ khi đồng từ tận cùng bằng hai phụ âm /t/, /d/
Examples
Transciption
Meaning
Wanted
/ˈwɑːntID/
Muốn
Needed
/'niːdID/
Muốn, cần
Lifted
/'lɪftID/
Nâng đỡ vật gì đó
Translated
/ trænsˈleɪtID/
Dịch

Collected
/ kəˈlektID /
Sưu tầm
Supported
/səˈpɔːrtID/
Ủng hộ, đồng tình
Landed
/ˈlændID/
Đổ bộ (quân); định cư
Punted
/'pʌntID/
Đẩy thuyền (bằng sào)
b) Phát âm là /d/ khi động từ tận cùng bằng các phụ âm hữu thanh /b/, /g/, /v/, /z/, /ʒ/, /dʒ/, /ð/, /m/, /n/,
/ŋ, /l/, /r/ và các nguyên âm
Examples
Transciption
Meaning
Robbed
/rɑːbD/
Cướp
Hugged
/hʌgD/
Ôm
Loved
/lʌvD/
Yêu
Closed
/kloʊzD/
Đóng
Rouged
/ruːʒD/
Đánh phấn hồng
Changed
/tʃeɪndʒD/
Thay đổi
Breathed
/briːðD/
Thở
Climbed
/klaɪmD/

Leo trèo
Mentioned
/ˈmenʃnD/
Đề cập đến
Banged
/bæŋD/
Gõ, đập
Travelled
/ˈtrævlD/
Đi du lịch
Entered
/ˈentərD/
Vào, xâm nhập
Cried
/kraɪD/
Khóc
c) Phát âm là /t/ khi động từ tận cùng bằng các phụ âm vô thanh /p/, k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/
Examples
Transciption
Meaning
Stopped
/stɑːpT/
Dừng lại
Looked
/lʊkT/
Nhìn
Laughed
/læfT/
Cười
Sentenced
/ˈsentənsT/
Tuyên án
Washed
/wɑːʃT/
Giặt giũ
Watched
/wɑːtʃT/
Xem
d) Cách đọc tính từ có hậu tố là -ED:
Examples
Transciption
Meaning
Naked
/ˈneɪkɪd/
Khỏa thân
They found him half
naked and bleeding to
death
Learned
/ˈlɜːrnɪd/
Học thức cao
Mr.John is a learned
professor at my
university
Beloved
/bɪˈlʌvɪd/
Yêu thương
I have read the novel
"Beloved Oxford" so
many times


Aged
Blessed

/ˈeɪdʒɪd/
/ˈblesɪd/

Rất già
May mắn

Dogged
Crooked

/ˈdɔːɡɪd/
/ˈkrʊkɪd/

kiên trì, bền bỉ
quanh co, khúc khuỷu

Ragged

/ˈræɡɪd/

xơ xác, tả tơi

Rugged

/ˈrʌɡɪd/

xù xì, gồ ghề

Cursed

/ˈkɜːrsɪd/

tức giận, khó chịu

Sacred

/ˈseɪkrɪd/

thiên liêng, trân trọng

Wicked

/ˈwɪkɪd/

xấu xa, độc ác

Wretched

/ˈretʃɪd/

khốn khổ, bất hạnh

One/two/four-legged

/...-ˈleɡɪd/

1/2/4 chân

My grandmother is aged
He is really a blessed
man
It's dogged that does it
This road is very
crooked
There is a man sitting
over there in a ragged
jacket
The countryside around
here is very rugged
She seemed to be cursed
because of waiting for
me too long
Human life must always
be sacred
That was very wicked of
you
She doesn't want to lead
a wretched existence in
the slums
Cats are four-legged
animals

2. Ngữ pháp và cấu trúc:
Review of tenses :
Verb Tense Revision Chart
(Revision of all tenses of English verbs with a brief explanation and an example.)
FORM
S + V_O/E/ES /
am/is/are
S + am/is/are + V_ing

TENSE
Present Simple

S + have/has + V_3/ed

Present Perfect Simple

S + have/has + been +
V_ing

Present Perfect
Continuous

S + V_2/ed / was / were

Past Simple

S + was/were + V_ing

Past Continuous

Present Continuous

USE
*Regular activities /
routine.
*Continuous present
action.
*Finished part of
continuous action.
*Completed actions in
unfinished time period.
*Recent events
(unspecified time)
*Past action with a
result in the present.
*Experiences up to now.

*Actions begun in the
past which continue
today.
*Finished actions at a
specific time in the past.
*Past continuous
actions.

EXAMPLE
1. We play tennis on
Sunday.
1. The children are
playing at the moment.
1. They have played two
sets.
2. They have played
several other matches
this year.
3. Their parents have
just arrived.
4. Sue has broken her
bike so she can’t
continue.
5. They have played in
many tournaments.
1. They have been
playing badminton since
3 o’clock this afternoon.
1. Last Saturday we
went fishing.
1. At 3.30 pm they were
watching their favorite


S + had + V_3/ed

Past Perfect Simple

*Completed actions
before a specific time or
event in the past.
*Continuous actions
before a specific time
or event in the past.
*Predictions
*Spontaneous
decisions/offers

S + had + been + V_ing

Past Perfect Continuous

S + will + V_O

Future Simple

S + will + be + V_ing

Future Continuous

*Continuous future
action

S + will + have +
V_3/ed

Future Perfect

*Completed future
action

S + will have been +
V_ing

Future Perfect
Continuous

*Continuous future
action estimated at a
time in the future.

film.
1. Two other people had
played a match before
we arrived.
1. At 4pm we had been
playing for 2 hours.
1. They will win the
match today.
2. I’ll lend you my
money!
1. Tomorrow they will
be playing in another
club.
1. By September they
will have finished three
courses.
1. At 5pm we will have
been playing for 3
hours.

BÀI TẬP
I. Choose the best answer for each of the following sentences.
1. Since I ______ young, I have always known that the conical leaf hat or the “nón lá” is a symbol of
Vietnamese culture.
A. am
B. was
C. have been
D. had been
2. If you’d written earlier, I’d have known when you ______ to go on holiday.
A. would want
B. would intend
C. wanted
D. will want
3. As soon as he _____, tell him to call me back, please.
A. will arrive
B. arrives
C. would arrive
D. is arriving
4. This house is often empty because the owners _____ abroad 5 times a year.
A. are going
B. were going
C. used to go
D. go
5. Which sentence is correct?
A. I’ve been to Japan in 2010.
B. He’s been to Japan once.
C. I’ve been in Japan once.
D. He was in Japn since 2010.
6. You _____ a beautiful cake. It tastes delicious.
A. had done
B. had made
C. have made
D. did
7. My aunt _____ in the park when I met her.
A. walked
B. was walking
C. had walked
D. had a walking
8. “_____ that letter yet?” – “No, I’m just typing it.”
A. Have you written
B. Are you writing
C. Did you write
D. Were you writing
9. As she went out, she ______ sight of herself in the mirror.
A. talked
B. took
C. saw
D. caught
10. “When did you last saw or heard from Alan?” – “I _____ him since last month.”
A. didn’t met
B. haven’t met
C. don’t meet
D. wasn’t meeting
11. “How long _____ her?” – “Oh, only for a couple of months.”
A. have you known
B. do you know
C. are you knowing
D. have you been knowing
12. I very much hope it’ll rain soon. We _____ a drop for over a month.
A. didn’t have
B. haven’t had
C. hadn’t had
D. haven’t
13. “Ouch! I _____ my finger!” suddenly said Tom.
A. had cut
B. have cut
C. was cutting
D. cut


14. You _____ a university degree for this job. You’ll only have to write letters and answer the phone.
A. haven’t got
B. mustn’t have
C. needn’t
D. don’t need
15. The captain of the ocean liner has just asked a sailor if _____ seen a white whale near the African
coast.
A. had he ever
B. he had ever
C. he always had
D. he has ever
16. “Excuse me, is anybody sitting here?” – “______”
A. No, thanks.
B. Yes, I am so glad.
C. Sorry, the seat is taken.
D. You are welcome.
17. The fox tries ______ to reach the fruit high up the tree.
A. in fail
B. in vain
C. in loss
D. in hope
18. We have bought extra food ______ our friends stay to dinner.
A. if only
B. whether
C. in case
D. only when
19. If you want to get better, do exactly ______ your doctor tells you.
A. like
B. the same
C. as
D. alike
20. Lomonosov was not _____ a great scientist but also a very talented poet.
A. fairly
B. merely
C. hardly
D. scarcely
21. When the results of the fraud investigation were announced last week, the staff came up smelling of
______.
A. roses
B. money
C. perfume
D. gold
22. The attitude of experts ______ the execution of endomyocardial biopsy at ARVD is contradictory.
A. towards
B. above
C. beneath
D. with
23. Lisa walked into the room and struck a/an ______ , hoping she would be noticed.
A. chord
B. act
C. deal
D. pose
24. It is important to have someone you can _______ in.
A. trust
B. hide
C. confide
D. declare
25. Millions of people say Coke tastes best from a bottle, and whether this is scientifically provable or
not, these millions know what they like: the look of the bottle and the way it fits so ______ into the hand.
A. neatly
B. orderly
C. tidily
D. finitely
26. Once I could see light at the end of the ______, writing the last part of the book wasn’t so hard.
A. tunnel
B. subway
C. passage
D. journey
27. The growing use of air conditioning and refrigeration risks ______ international efforts to cut
emissions to avoid dangerous heatwaves, extreme weather and sea level rise.
A. undermine
B. undermining
C. to undermine
D. undermined
28. In its rich ______, culture has intrinsic value for development as well as social cohesion and peace.
A. diverse
B. diversity
C. diversify
D. diversification
29. In Viet Nam, the Ao Dai is the ______ dress for women, and it is now standard for weddings, for
celebrating Tet and for other formal occasions.
A. splendid
B. pulchritude
C. deliverable
D. traditional
30. One of the biggest temptations for someone new to the travel game is to look at everything from
behind rose-tinted ______, and this typically comes out in their writing.
A. mirrors
B. glasses
C. patterns
D. prospects
31. She really went out on a ______ when she criticised the professor in front of the whole class.
A. limb
B. leg
C. lung
D. lip
32. Studies show that children who are exposed to a more diverse community are more creative and
______ of differences. These students learn how to resolve conflict more easily.
A. tolerate
B. tolerant
C. tolerance
D. tolerated
33. In love marriages, people prefer to choose their partners on their own, while in case of ______
marriage or arranged marriages others prefer partners chosen by their family or parents.
A. contractual
B. romantic
C. obliged
D. sacrificed
34. Vietnamese spend a lot of time in preparing ______. The Western people, especially, don’t spend too
much time for cooking.
A. grocery
B. beverage
C. drink
D. food
35. For a long time, the images of young ladies with a conical leaf hat known as “Non la” has made a
strong impression on _______ coming to Viet Nam


A. who
B. whom
C. whoever
D. whose
36. They got married without their parents’ _____.
A. blessing
B. vow
C. swear
D. prayer
37. The show starts with a welcome of the _______ who introduces guests or entertainers at a formal
occasion.
A. bridesmaid
B. bridegroom
C. master chief
D. master of ceremony
38. We haven’t ______ all the details yet, but we’ll certainly be going to the USA in July.
A. concluded
B. terminated
C. ceased
D. finalised
39. In her speech the Prime Minister ______ tribute to the valuable contributions to society made by
voluntary organisations.
A. gave
B. paid
C. sent
D. brought
40. The weather is going to change soon – I can feel it in my ______.
A. skin
B. teeth
C. legs
D. bones
41. There is a very strong movement now against ______ sports like hunting or shooting.
A. blood
B. death
C. killing
D. terminal
42. Maria and Jean had a ______ romance – they met and married within two months.
A. cyclone
B. hurricane
C. whirlwind
D. typhoon
43. If you say you’d like ______ of cream on your strawberries then you don’t want very much cream.
A. a dollop
B. a dash
C. oodles
D. lashings
44. I’m afraid we got our ______ crossed – I thought my husband would be picking up the children and
he thought I was doing it.
A. fingers
B. minds
C. purposes
D. wires
45. After the football match the crowds _____ out of the stadium into the nearest bars and cafes.
A. leaked
B. poured
C. trickled
D. dripped
46. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was born to a family known for fine craftwork of wood and ______ of coal.
A. manicurists
B. merchants
C. mechanics
D. miners
47. His breaking the rules set a dangerous ______.
A. custom
B. precedent
C. practice
D. tradition
48. In recent years there has been a ______ increase in the cost of living.
A. powerful
B. ponderous
C. wide
D. significant
49. When a Vietnamese wants to work part-time in Australia, he needs to get a work ______.
A. permit
B. permission
C. permissibility
D. permissiveness
50. The river was ______ to help the local children go to school easily.
A. bridged
B. demolished
C. tied
D. hanged
II. Read the passage below and choose one correct answer for each question:
INDIAN MARRIAGES
Marriage is one of the oldest human institutions and this is as true in Indian culture as anywhere
else. In India marriage, called “Kanyadana" or “donating a virgin”, is thought of as the greatest sacrifice
that a father can make and for the groom as an obligation to perpetuate his bloodline. Many people
believe that a marriage is still binding after death.
In early times girls were thought to be ready for marriage after puberty and later even children
could be married. Divorce and remarriage were not always possible. By Medieval times Marriage was
compulsory for girls, who very often married between the ages of eight and nine. Among those able to
afford it, polygamy was common and rulers would often have one wife from their own region and other
minor wives from other areas. Now, divorce and remarriage is possible and non-Muslim Indian men can
only have one wife.
Although are many regional variations, some features of the Indian wedding ceremony are similar
throughout the country. In general weddings are very complicated events and involve long negotiations
about dowry payments prior to the event. After this has been decided a day is chosen by asking an
astrologer to find a lucky day. Preparations begin early because a marriage is not only one of the
highlights a person’s life, but a large and complex social gathering to organize.
The night before, the bride, her friends and female relatives gather together for a party called a
“mehendi”, where they paint each other’s hands and feet with Henna and dance and listen to music. Her


guests often give the bride advice about married life and tease her about her future husband. Weddings
are traditionally held at the bride’s home or in a temple, but parks, hotels and marriage halls are becoming
increasingly popular. On the day a wedding altar or “mandapa” is built and covered in flowers. All of the
wedding ceremony will be held in the altar.
The clothing a couple wear on their wedding day varies between regions and ethnic groups. Women
most commonly wear a sari. The bride wears a lot of jewelry as this symbolizes the prosperity she will
bring to her new family. In the South wearing flowers is common. The groom wears traditional costume
or a suit. Turbans are also popular headgear.
The ceremony begins with a mixture of tumeric, sandlewood paste and oils being applied to the
couples face and arms. In the past this was done to the whole body, but now it is only symbolic, with only
a little being rubbed on. Then they are showered in flowers. After this they perform the rituals that will
make them man and wife. First they garland each other and then take seven symbolic steps together
representing seven gifts and seven promises.
Finally they say the vows and then they are legally married. The bride’s father or guardian takes her
hands and puts them in her husband’s giving her to him. Now she is no longer a member of her father’s
family, but a member of her husband’s. They then touch the feet of their elders for luck.
After the wedding ceremony, the couple go to the groom’s house. The bride should be careful to
enter the house right foot first for luck. In the evening and late into the night the families and their guests
celebrate with dancing, music and food.
1. In India weddings are _______.
A. a duty for the man to continue his family
B. thought to end at death
C. a duty for the father
D. seen asa benefit for the father
2. Divorce and remarriage ______.
A. are only possible for non-Muslims
B. were sometimes not possible in the past
C. have always been possible
D. have only become possible in modern times
3. Indian weddings ______.
A. are straightforward and brief
B. are thought to be lucky
C. are intricate and time consuming
D. involve only the immediate family
4. The evening prior to the wedding, the wife-to-be is given recommendations about ______.
A. married life
B. her future husband
C. a “mehendi” party
D. wedding gifts
5. The wedding ceremony is conducted in a special _______.
A. temple
B. hotels and marriage halls
C. park or pagoda
D. wedding altar or “mandapa”
6. The gold and jewels the bride wears represent _______.
A. tradition
B. popularity
C. prosperity
C. poverty
7. These days the materials applied prior to the ceremony are only ______.
A. invaluable
B. specific
C. particular
D. symbolic
8. After the wedding, the bride has left _______.
A. her father’s family
B. her husband’s family
C. his father’s family
D. his husband’s family
9. It is important that the new bride goes into the new house with _______.
A. her first lucky
B. her right foot first
C. her first talk
D. her left foot first
10. The word “complex” in paragraph 3 means ______.
A. complicated
B. simple
C. formal
D. significant
III. Read the passage below and choose one correct answer for each question:
Many people think that we can learn a lot about the culture of a foreign country simply by living in
that country. However, this is not necessarily true. Often, the longer we stay in a foreign country, the
more we realize how little we actually know about the culture of that country.
Books and talks about other people’s culture can even be dangerous because they concentrate on
cultural differences and exaggerate national character, and sometimes a lot of information they contain is
untrue.
In a study recently carried out in Britain, people were asked to make a list of anything that they
thought was typical ofBritainand would interest a foreign visitor there. Most mentioned Shakespeare, the


Queen, village inns, English folk dancing, English castles, and fish chips wrapped in newspaper.
Although all of these characters can be found in British culture, they do not show the real interests of
ordinary British people: (they are, in fact, simply stereotype - that is, general character which people
wrongly think are typical). What is surprising is that they were suggested by British people themselves as
representing their culture. If people have such a wrong impression of their own culture, how much false
would their impression of their culture be!
1. If we stay a long time in a foreign country, _______.
A. we will usually realize that we know very little about its culture
B. we will sometimes forget about culture of our own country
C. we can often learn a lot about the culture of the foreign country
D. we can seldom find out anything at all about its culture
2. It is hard to learn about a country’s cultural from books because such books _______.
A. concentrate on the dangers of the foreign culture B. exaggerate national character
C. take no notice of culture different
D. contain little information about culture
3. When asked about their own culture, many British people _______.
A. gave incorrect answers
B. were surprised by the question asked
C. argued they know little about British culture
D. said they themselves were not typical of British people
4. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that it’s easy to _______.
A. give exact information about your own country
B. describe stereotypes of your country
C. know a lot about your own country’s culture
D. know the culture of other countries
5. Which of the following is true?
A. It’s easy to assimilate the culture of a foreign country.
B. Visitors to a country are soon assimilated into it culture.
C. British people understand their own culture more than other culture.
D. The culture of a foreign culture can not be learned by reading books.
IV. Read the passage below and choose one correct answer for each question:
Culture is a strong part of people’s lives. It influences their views, their values, their humor, their
hopes, their loyalties, and their worries and fears. If you are from New Mexico or Montana, if your
parents are Cambodian, French Canadian, or Native American, if you are German Catholic or AfricanAmerican, if you are Jewish or Mormon, if you are a boy or a girl, if you are a mixture of cultures your
culture has affected you. So when you are working with people and building relationships with them, it
helps to have some perspective and understanding of their cultures.
But as we explore culture, it’s also important to remember how much we have in common. A
person who grew up in Tibet, will probably see the world very differently than someone who grew up in
Manhattan - but both people know what it is like to wake up in the morning and look forward to the
adventures that of the day. We are all human beings. We all love deeply, want to learn, have hopes and
dreams, and have experienced pain and fear.
At the same time, we can’t pretend that our cultures and differences don’t matter. We can’t gloss
over differences and pretend they don’t exist, wishing that we could be alike. And we can’t pretend that
people that discrimination doesn’t exist.
People have very different views of what a multicultural society or community should be like or
could be like. In the past few decades there has been a lot of discussion about what it means to live and
work together in a society that is diverse as ours. People struggle with different visions of a fair,
equitable, moral, and harmonious society.
1. Culture has effect on the followings EXCEPT _______.
A. anxieties
B. desires
C. opinions
D. gestures
2. If we learn about the differences among many cultures, _______.
A. we are always afraid and react to everything with fear
B. we will look on the bright side of life and think that the future can be positive
C. we want to love someone who experience foreign cultures with unprecedented ease
D. we should know that the similarities between us and others who have different cultures
3. Why do we all expect something interesting when a new day come although having different cultures?


A. We know who we are
B. We need love, money and health
C. We are all human beings
D. We share many things in common
4. According to the passage, which of the following statements is not true?
A. Culture has become an important part of our daily lives.
B. When we get acquaintance with someone, we shouldn’t know about their cultures.
C. Discrimination is still a problem in modern society.
D. People have very different attitudes towards cultural diversity.
5. The word “equitable” in the passage is opposite in meaning to _______.
A. one-sided
B. even-handed
C. touch-oriented
D. impartial
V. Read the passage below and choose one correct answer for each question:
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - CULTURAL ISSUES
PERSONAL APPEARANCE
Clothing habits are a matter of personal preference in the United States. Although fashion trends
affect general clothing patterns, a person usually feels free to wear whatever he or she pleases. Americans
emphasize cleanliness, but they may purposely wear tattered clothing or casual attire in public. Clothing
is often used to make a social or personal statement. Nonetheless, formal clothing is popular and is worn
for certain social occasions. Appearance, in general, is important to the individual American.
GREETINGS
Both men and women usually smile and shake hands when greeting. The American handshake is
often firm. Good friends and family members may embrace when they meet, especially after a long
absence. In causal situations, a wave may be used instead of a handshake. Friends also often wave to each
other at a distance, and Americans may greet strangers on the street saying Hello or Good morning,
although they may pass by without any greeting. Among the youth, verbal greetings or various handslapping gestures (such as the “high five”) are common. Except in formal situations, people address one
another by their given names once acquainted. Combining a title (Mrs., Dr., Miss, for example) with a
family name shows respect. When greeting someone for the first time, Americans commonly say Nice to
meet you or How do you do? A simple Hello or Hi is also common. There are regional variations, such as
Aloha in Hawaii or Howdy in parts of the West. Friends often greet each other with How are you? and
respond Fine, thanks. Americans do not really expect any further answer to the question.
GESTURES
Americans do not stand close when conversing, maintaining about two feet between individuals.
However, they may spontaneously touch one another on the arm or shoulder during conversation. It is
common for members of the opposite sex to hold hands or show affection in public. To point, a person
extends the index finger. Beckoning is done by waving all fingers (or the index finger) with the palm
facing up. Direct eye contact is not necessary for the duration of conversation, but moments of eye
contact are essential to ensure one’s sincerity. When sitting, Americans are casual, and my prop their feet
up on chairs or place the ankle of one leg on the knee of the other. Crossing legs at the knee is just as
common as sitting with legs spread apart. Poor posture is not appropriate, but is not uncommon.
1. It is mentioned in the passage that Americans _______.
A. may wear casual clothes when going out.
B. tend to choose informal clothes for social occasions.
C. take no notice of what they wear in public
D. feel uncomfortable to decide what they wear everyday.
2. In America, if you see your friends or your family members after a long time, what do you do?
A. You just can smile at them
B. You should shake hands with them
C. You may give them a hug
D. You might wave to them
3. When Americans have a conversation with each other, _______.
A. they often hold hands.
B. they do not stand close.
C. they needn’t catch their partner’s eye.
D. they smile as much as they can.
4. When greeting someone for the first time, Americans don’t say “_______”.
A. Hello!
B. Nice to meet you!
C. Long time no see.
D. How do you do?
5. When Americans sit, crossing legs at the knee is ________.


A. thoroughly polite
B. a manner of a rude person
C. poor gesture
D. not common
VI. Fill in each numbered blank of the following passage with a suitable word.
By the midnineteenth century, the term “icebox” had entered the American language, but ice was
still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the
growth of cities. Ice was used in places like hotels and hospitals, and by some forwardlooking city
businessmen in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War (1861-1865 ), it also came into
household use. Even before 1880, half of the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and onethird of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible
because a new household convenience, the icebox, early form of the modern refrigerator, had been
invented.
Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth
century, people only had some simple and basic knowledge of the physics of heat. The common idea that
the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting
of the ice that performed the cooling. Early efforts to save ice included wrapping up the ice in blankets,
which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors
achieve the delicate balance needed for an efficient icebox.
But as early as 1803, a Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been in the correct direction. He
owned a farm and used an icebox of his own design for the transportation of his butter to a market in the
village of Georgetown. And there he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting goods of his
competitors to pay a higher price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, onepound bricks. One
advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at
night in order to keep their produce cool. As a result, Moore managed to earn a large sum of money.
The Origin of Refrigerators
*By the mid19th century the 1._______ that ice had on
American citizens’ life was limited mainly to the diet.
*When cities grew, the ice 2.________ increased.
History of the icebox

*Forwardlooking businessmen used ice to keep meat, fish and
butter 3._______.
*After the Civil War, due to the 4._______ of the modern
refrigerator, household use of ice became possible.

Incorrect 5.________ about the icebox

*The icebox 6.________ best when the ice was prevented from
melting.
*Ice should be 7.________ up in blankets to help do its jobs.
*As early as 1803, Thomas Moore knew how to use an icebox
8.________.

Thomas Moore’s story

*An icebox was designed by Thomas Moore to 9.________ his
butter to the market.
*Thomas Moore was very 10.______ in his business.

*KEY:
1. effect/influence/impact
2. trade/business/deal
3. fresh
4. invention/appearance
5. ideas/views/opinions
6. worked/functioned
7. wrapped/packed/parceled


8. correctly/properly/efficiently
9. transport/deliver
10. successful
VII. Read the following passage and choose the best answer for each blank.
Is Multiculturalism Positive Or Negative?
Different people have different views to things, like or dislike, agree or disagree. Multiculturalism
is a controversial issue in America. Some people think that multiculturalism is (1)_______, whereas some
others think that multiculturalism is positive. In my opinion, I agree (2)_______ the second view, that
multiculturalism is positive.
Multiculturalism is diversity of two or more culture in some region or country. America is an
immigrant country; most people in America are immigrants. They come (3)_______ different countries
and different ethnic groups; they have different languages, educational backgrounds, customs, values and
religions. When they arrive America, they must communicate with other people in English. They learn
English and the culture from American people or earlier immigrants who are around them. In their public
activity, they must (4)_______ American cultural traditions, but in their private lives, they inevitably use
their own customs, values, religions, traditional festivals and experiences to influence their behaviors.
They are still (5)________ their own cultures.
Since the 1960s, The America government (6)________, encouraged and supported cultural
diversity. Fair policies allowed all citizens to have the right to preserve their cultural inheritance. Public
school has (7)_______ education programs for new immigrant children. Under the laws, racism,
discrimination and prejudice are significantly decreased. The relationships of people in the country are
friendly and harmonious, and people’s lives have become rich and colorful. We are understanding and
learning from each other more easily than before. We can eat different cultural style foods. We can watch
different country’s performances. We can enjoy the celebration events of different country’s festivals.
Kids (8)________ up in this multicultural background are easy to accept different views, values and
behaviors of foreign countries. Especially, following the development of the Internet and wireless
communication technology, the distance from country to country and people to people has becomes
closer, and the economies between regions and countries are connected more (9)_______. The whole
world became a global village. Multiculturalism is becoming more important than at any other time in
history.
In conclusion, multiculturalism is a good thing for society and people, (10)_______ it is positive.
We need to enhance and develop multiculturalism in our lives.
1.
A. innovative
B. negative
C. affirmative
D. conclusive
2.
A. with
B. toward
C. upon
D. behind
3.
A. at
B. for
C. to
D. from
4.
A. reject
B. accept
C. refuse
D. adapt
5.
A. eliminating
B. throwing
C. retaining
D. disqualifying
6.
A. has admitted
B. has been admitted
C. had admitted
D. was admitted
7.
A. multilingual
B. trilingual
C. bilingual
D. monolingual
8.
A. are grown
B. grow
C. grown
D. growing
9.
A. closed
B. closely
C. close
D. closer
10.
A. so
B. yet
C. though
D. still
VIII. Read the following passage and choose the best answer for each blank.
Humanity has inhabited every corner of the world, except Antarctica, (1)_______ centuries. As
groups of people worked and lived together, they developed (2)________ cultures. Together the cultures
of the world create a rich and (3)________ tapestry. The resulting cultural diversity expands choices,
nurtures a variety of skills, human values and worldviews and provides wisdom from the past to inform
the future. Cultural diversity is a mainspring for sustainable development for individuals, communities
and countries. Thus, building an effective global approach to sustainable development and ESD needs
(4)________ respecting, protecting and maintaining the cultural diversity of the world now and in the
future.
Cultural diversity (5)________ strong influence on ESD in that:
• All ESD must be locally relevant and culturally appropriate;


• Culture influences what this generation chooses to teach the next generation (6)________ what
knowledge is valued, skills, ethics, languages and worldviews;
• ESD requires intercultural understanding if people are to live together peacefully, tolerating and
accepting differences amongst cultural and ethnic groups.
ESD aims at promoting teaching which respects indigenous and traditional knowledge and
encourages the use of indigenous languages in education. Indigenous worldviews and perspectives on
(7)________ should be integrated into education programmes at all levels whenever relevant.
Local knowledge and languages are repositories of diversity and key resources in understanding the
environment and in using it to the best (8)_______. They foster and promote local cultural specificities,
customs and values. The preservation of cultures is linked to economic development. (9)_______, tourism
and cultural industries can (10)_______ the risk of commodifying culture for outsiders. Cultures must be
respected as the living and dynamic contexts within which human beings find their values and identity.
1.
A. since
B. as
C. in
D. for
2.
A. distinctiveness
B. distinctive
C. distinction
D. distinct
3.
A. variety
B. variable
C. varied
D. vary
4.
A. address
B. to address
C. addressing
D. addressed
5.
A. exerts
B. struggles
C. fights
D. empowers
6.
A. to include
B. includes
C. include
D. including
7.
A. sustainability
B. sustainable
C. sustained
D. sustaining
8.
A. disadvantage
B. advantage
C. disinterest
D. interest
9.
A. Despite
B. Suppose
C. Although
D. However
10.
A. suffer
B. bear
C. run
D. make
IX. Read the following passage and choose the best answer for each blank.
WHAT IS CULTURAL DIVERSITY?
Diversity is (1)________ more than a difference from the majority. In any culture there is a
majority and many minorities. Culture is a set of norms that (2)________ standards for a society of what
is acceptable behavior.
In every culture there are basic standards for social interaction such as personal space distance, eye
contact, amount of body language displayed in public, negotiating style, etc. In America, we stand about
eighteen inches apart when engaged (3)______ normal conversation; prefer very direct eye contact; are
pretty demonstrative with body language and (4)_______ very directly always asking (5)_______ party
for their “bottom line”. In other cultures they may stand closer or farther than we are comfortable, may
view direct eye contact as rude, be more or less open to displaying body language and negotiate more
indirectly.
In America, many of us have a peculiar habit of assuming that those who differ (6)_______ our
norms are wrong. We tend to view the world from a rather myopic view leading to those outside this
country calling us “Ugly Americans”.
Cultural diversity (7)_______ our country richer by making it a more interesting place (8)_______
to live. Just think how boring a meal would be without Chinese, Mexican, Japanese, Italian, German,
French or Indian food!
Cultural diversity also makes our country stronger and better able to compete in the new global
economy. People from diverse cultures bring language skills, new ways of thinking, creative solutions to
difficult problems and negotiating skills.
In the past, ethnographers in the United States used to refer to our country as a melting (9)_______
where new immigrants would eventually be fully integrated into the American culture. This has obviously
not happened so modern researchers have not begun to talk about America as a garden salad where
different cultural diversity mixes with the European American culture to form a meal where all of the
various ingredients are still readily (10)_______.
Cultural diversity makes the United States a much more interesting place in which to live for all of
its inhabitants. If we all thought alike imagine how boring the world would be! Thank God for diversity!
1.
A. nothing
B. something
C. anything
D. onething
2.
A. lack
B. look
C. set
D. take
3.
A. on
B. in
C. at
D. to


4.
A. negotiation
B. negotiate
C. negotiable
D. negotiating
5.
A. another
B. others
C. the others
D. the other
6.
A. with
B. among
C. from
D. between
7.
A. makes
B. gets
C. becomes
D. stays
8.
A. which
B. for which
C. on which
D. in which
9.
A. spot
B. pot
C. spoon
D. pan
10.
A. identification
B. identify
C. identifiable
D. identified
X. Read the following passage and choose the best answer for each blank.
In Korea, in former days the marriage between a man and woman represented the joining of two
families, rather (1)_______ the joining of two individuals. The event (2)_______ Taerye (Great Ritual),
and people from all over the village or neighborhood participated. The ceremonies and events
surrounding the actual marriage were long and (3)_______ Professional matchmakers paired up likely
candidates for marriage, with the new couple often meeting for the first time at their wedding! The
families considered many factors in the decision, consulting with fortune tellers for (4)_______ about the
couple’s future life together. During the Chosun period, people married (5)_______ their early teens, with
the girl often being several years older than the boy.
The groom usually traveled to the house of the bride for the ceremony, then stayed there for three
days (6)_______ taking his new bride to his family’s home. The actual ceremony involved many small
rituals, with many bows and symbolic gestures. The (7)_______ were expected to control their motions
and remain somber.
(8)______ Koreans have kept several aspects of the traditional ceremony, most modern ceremonies
resemble Western marriage ceremonies more than (9)______ Korean ones. However, many folk villages
and museums across the country regularly perform ceremonies to (10)_______ the traditions alive.
1.
A. as
B. more
C. than
D. more thaN
2.
A. is often called
B. often called
C. was often called
D. has often called
3.
A. elaborate
B. elaboratory
C. elaboration
D. elaborateness
4.
A. predictions
B. attentions
C. situations
D. evaluations
5.
A. for
B. in
C. on
D. from
6.
A. soon
B. ago
C. before
D. then
7.
A. examiners
B. competitors
C. contests
D. participants
8.
A. As
B. Although
C. As though
D. If only
9.
A. traditional
B. old
C. ancient
D. antique
10.
A. catch
B. hold
C. grip
D. keep
XI. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense:
Africa (1)_________ (regard) as the oldest continent in the world. The beginning of modern man as
well as the root of western civilization can be traced back to this continent. Africa (2)_______ (play) a
significant role in the development of certain sciences. Such connections can be seen in the Egyptian
civilization around 3000 BC. It has been established that the Kushite civilization (3)________ (have) a
system of writing which (4)_________ (date) back to the fifth century BC. Africa has been regarded as
the “dark continent” by the European explorers who came circa fifteen century- this comprised of the
Portuguese, Dutch, English, French and Spanish explorers.
However, it is noteworthy to say that Africa was not dark before the advent of the Europeans.
Africa (5)________ (be) literate well before the colonial ingress. Such literacy is seen among the Axum
of Ethiopia, as their classical language was expressed in written form by fourth century AD. Literary
works were recorded in learning centers of Timbuktu (Mali), and Djenne during the fifteenth century and
in the Swahili city states of the East African coast.
*KEY:
1. is regarded
2. played
3. had
4. dated
5. had been
XII. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means the same as the sentence
printed before it.


1. I haven’t seen Alice for ages.
→ It’s ages _______________________________________.
2. She started to teach 13 years ago.
→ She has ________________________________________.
3. We last visited Rome three years ago.
→ We have _______________________________________.
4. It’s 3 months since she last phoned me.
→ The ___________________________________________.
5. Peter has never heard classical music before.
→ It’s ____________________________________________.
6. This is the silliest joke I have ever heard.
→ I have _________________________________________.
7. I arrived in London last week and I’m still here.
→ I have _________________________________________.
8. When did you meet Antonio?
→ How __________________________________________?
9. I last saw Alison over a year ago.
→ I ______________________________________________.
10. I began learning English at the end of 2010.
→ I ______________________________________________.
*KEY:
1. It’s ages since I last saw Alice.
2. She has taught for 13 years.
3. We haven’t / have not visited Rome for three years.
4. The last time she phoned me was three months ago.
5. It’s the first time Peter has heard classical music.
6. I have never heard such a silly joke before.
7. I have been in London for a week.
8. How long have you known Antonio?
9. I haven’t / have not seen Alison for more than a year.
10. I have been learning English since the end of 2010.
XIII. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence.
1. I haven’t seen Gerry for / since a long time. How is he?
2. It’s ages ago / since I last went to a football match.
3. I’ve written to Deborah last week / recently.
4. What have you been doing today / yesterday?
5. Have you eaten Italian food before / already?
6. I’ve been living here in / since the end of last year.
7. Actually I had dinner with Sue last night / lately.
8. I’ve been trying to get in touch with David for ages / for the last time.
9. Terry hasn’t been to Edinburgh since / when we went there together.
10. I can’t remember how long / when I’ve had this watch.
*KEY:
1. for
2. since
3. recently
4. today
5. before
6. since
7. last night
8. for ages
9. since
10. how long


XIV. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the
word given. Don’t change the words given.
1. First one of the party steered the boat, then the other steered it. TURNS
→ The members of the party ___________________________________.
2. She was annoyed that they wouldn’t stop disturbing her. RESENTED
→ She _____________________________________________________.
3. They had to dismantle their vehicles to get them across the gorge. PIECES
→ They had to ______________________________________________.
4. Her sudden appearance surprised all of us. SURPRISE
→ All of us _________________________________________________.
5. Bob agreed to undertake the leadership of the expedition. ON
→ Bob agreed _______________________________________________.
6. She’s never been out of the town. Nor has she been out of the country. LET ALONE
→ She’s never _______________________________________________.
7. You seem to be very grumpy this morning. OUT OF BED
→ You seem ________________________________________________.
8. After a pause for questions and refreshments, he continued his story. UP
→ He ______________________________________________________.
9. That reminds me of the time I climbed to the top of Mount Fuji. BACK
→ That _____________________________________________________.
10. He couldn’t stop looking at the crocodile’s jaws. EYES
→ He ______________________________________________________.
*KEY:
1. The members of the party took turns at steering the boat.
2. She resented being disturbed by them.
3. They had to take their vehicles to pieces to get them across the gorge.
4. All of us were taken by surprise by her sudden appearance.
5. Bob agreed to take on the leadership of the expedition.
6. She’s never been out of the town let alone out of the country.
7. You seem to get out of bed on the wrong side this morning.
8. He took up with his story after a pause for questions and refreshments.
9. That brings me back to the time I climbed to the tio of Mount Fuji.
10. He couldn’t take his eyes off the crocodile’s jaws.
XV. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the
word given. Don’t change the words given.
1. The students all wrote down the words from the blackboard. NOTE
→ The students all ___________________________________________ the words from the blackboard.
2. Brian was really interested in North American history in his school days. INTEREST
→ Brian __________________________________________ North American history in his school days.
3. When it comes to population, Beijing’s is much bigger than Auckland’s. POPULATED
→ Beijing is _____________________________________________________________ than Auckland.
4. The manager should think about experience when hiring new staff. CONSIDERATION
→ The manager should _______________________________________________ when hiring new staff.
5. The anti-smoking advertisement does not stop people from smoking. INEFFECTIVE
→ The anti-smoking advertisement is ____________________________________ people from smoking.
6. She has learnt a substantial amount from her university course. GAINED
→ She has __________________________________________________ knowledge from her university.
7. It is a good idea to learn Chinese to improve your future job prospects. TAKING
→ _________________________________________ is a good way to enhance your work opportunities.
8. When I realised what had happend, I became quite afraid. OVERCOME
→ I __________________________________________________ when I worked out what had occurred.
9. He saw the litter on the ground and picked it up an put it in the bin immediately. HESITATION
→ He grabbed the rubbish off the ground and threw it ________________________________________.


10. Do you think you could give me a hand to move the sofa? MIND
→ Would you __________________________________________________________ to move the sofa?
*KEY:
1. made a note of
2. had an interest in
3. much more populated
4. take experience into consideration
5. ineffective at stopping
6. gained a substantial amount of
7. Taking up Chinese
8. was overcome with fear
9. in the bin without hesitation
10. mind giving me a hand
XVI. Write about the following topic:
The importance of culture.
Write at least 200 words.
XVII. Write about the following topic:
Romantic marriage is better than contractual marriage.
Write at least 200 words.
XVIII. Write a paragraph topic:
1. Write a short paragraph to express your attitude toward love and marriage in our modern society.
2. Write the letter to your friends to tell her or him about your new academic year.
Write at least 120 words.
 THE END 



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