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A study on the vietnamese translation of english non finite clauses

HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ENGLISH

GRADUATION THESIS
B.A DEGREE IN ENGLISH STUDIES
A STUDY ON THE VIETNAMESETRANSLATION OF
ENGLISH NON-FINITE CLAUSES

Supervisor: Vu Tuan Anh, M.A.
Student: Doan Thi Thanh Hien
Date of birth: 28/02/1994
Course: K19A06 (2012-2016)

Hanoi - 2016


Graduation Paper

Title:A STUDY ON THE VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF
ENGLISH NON-FINITE CLAUSES


I certify that no part of the above report has been copied or reproduced by me
from any other’s work without acknowledgement and that the report is
originally written by me under the strict guidance of my supervisor.

Hanoi……. May 2016

Student

Doan Thi Thanh Hien- K19A06- Course 2012-2016

Supervisor


Graduation Paper

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The graduation paper is written under the supervisor of Mr. Vu Tuan Anh, MA
of the Faculty of English, Hanoi Open University. In the process of completing
this Graduation Paper, I also have received a great deal of help, guidance and
encouragement from my teachers and friends.
I would first and foremost like to express my thanks to my supervisor Mr. Vu
Tuan Anh, M.A for his precious advice, suggestion, and inspiration.
Secondly, my sincere thanks go to all my teachers in the Faculty of English for
their lectures and instructions which definitely are useful for my research.
I also would like to express my gratefulness to my peers, my friends for their
encouragement and help to complete the graduation paper.
Finally, my heartfelt thanks are to my family for their unconditional support
and love.
Hanoi.......…/……….2016

Doan Thi Thanh Hien.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART A: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 01
1. Rationale ..................................................................................................... 01
2. Aims and objectives of the study ............................................................... 02
2.1 Aims ................................................................................................ 02
2.2 Objectives........................................................................................ 02
3. Scope of the study ....................................................................................... 02
4. Research questions ..................................................................................... 03
5. Methods of the study .................................................................................. 03
6. Design of the study ..................................................................................... 03
PART B: DEVELOPMENT .......................................................................... 05
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ...................................... 05
1.1 Definition of translation ........................................................................... 05
1.2 Translation methods................................................................................. 06
1.3 Definition of non-finite clauses ................................................................ 07
1.4 Forms of non-finite clauses ...................................................................... 08
1.4.1 The infinitive ................................................................................ 08
1.4.2 The gerund ................................................................................... 11
1.4.3 The participle clauses .................................................................. 12
1.5 Syntactic features of non-finite clauses ................................................... 13
1.5.1 The present participle clause ...................................................... 13
1.5.2 The past participle clause ............................................................ 14
1.5.3 The full infinitive clause .............................................................. 14
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1.6 Functions of non-finite clauses................................................................. 15
1.7 Position of non-finite clauses.................................................................... 15
1.8 Semantic meanings of non-finite clauses ................................................. 17
1.8.1 Extension ...................................................................................... 18
1.8.2 Enhancement ............................................................................... 18
1.8.3 Elaborating .................................................................................. 19
CHAPTER 2: METHODS AND PROCEDURES ........................................ 20
2.1. Overview .................................................................................................. 20
2.2. Research design ....................................................................................... 20
2.3. Research questions, method for collecting data and data analysis ....... 20
2.3.1 Decision on the research questions ............................................. 20
2.3.2 Decision on method for collecting data....................................... 20
2.3.3 Method for data analysis ............................................................. 20
2.4. Study procedures ..................................................................................... 21
CHAPTER 3: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS ......................................... 22
3.1. Ways of translating infinitive clauses ..................................................... 22
3.1.1 In the form of a verb when they are subjects, complements,
objects and attributives ........................................................................ 22
3.1.2 In the form of a noun when they are subjects, objects and
adverbs ................................................................................................. 25
3.1.3 In the form of an adverb when they are subjects and
adverbs .................................................................................................. 26
3.1.4 In the form of a finite clause when they are subjects, objects and
adverbs .................................................................................................. 27
3.2 Ways of translating participle clauses ..................................................... 28
3.2.1 In the form of a verb when they are complements, attributives
and adverbs .......................................................................................... 28
3.2.1.1 In the form of a noun...................................................... 30
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3.2.1.2 In the form of an adverb ................................................ 31
3.2.1.3 In the form of a finite clause .......................................... 31
3.3 Ways of translating of gerund clauses ..................................................... 33
3.3.1 In the form of a verb to denote actions when they are subjects,
objects and complements ..................................................................... 33
3.3.2 In the form of a noun when they are subjects, complements and
objects ................................................................................................... 34
3.3.3 In the form of an adverb to denote time when they are subjects
and objects ............................................................................................ 35
3.3.4 In the form of a finite clause when they are objects .................. 35
PART C: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .......................... 37
1. General summary of the study .................................................................. 37
2. Conclusion .................................................................................................. 38
3. Recommendations ...................................................................................... 38
3.1. Recommendations for the learners ............................................... 38
3.2. Recommendations for the further researches .............................. 39
4. Limitations of the study ............................................................................. 40
REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 41

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: The summary of the ways of translating Infinitive clauses ........... 27
Table 2: The summary of the ways of translating Participle clauses .......... 32
Table 3: The summary of the ways of translating Gerund clauses.............. 35

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A STUDY ON THE VIETNAMESETRANSLATION OF
ENGLISH NON-FINITE CLAUSES

PART A: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
English usage is a subject as wide as the English language itself. It is not
difficult for native speakers of English to use. However, there are sometimes
certain problems for learners of English as a foreign language, in its
constructions as well as they do not have deeply understanding about translation
from English language into Vietnamese language or vice versa. Particularly,
translation is an activity of increasingly vital importance in the educational,
political, economic and cultural fields of human endeavors. Moreover, in fact,
we usually use non-finite clauses, which often occurs in translation. Hence, in
my study, I would like to choose this topic: “A Study on the Vietnamese
Translation of English Non-finite Clauses.”
In linguistics, a non-finite clause is a dependent clause or subordinate
clause whose verb is non-finite. Its form and meaning are various and diverse.
Therefore, it is very difficult to use accurately and practice for the learners,
especially Vietnamese learners of English at the levels of elementary and preintermediate. Some of them often fail to recognize kinds of non-finite clauses
and get confused how to translate into target language. In addition, there are a
number of problems, which are remarkable ones occur in translating non-finite
clauses. All of the students, who use non-finite clauses; however, they do not
concern about the meanings of non-finite clauses in translating.
For instance, to translate the follow English sentence into Vietnamese: “It
took me a long time to learn where she came from.”, many students translated it
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as follow: “Nó lấy mất của tôi một thời gian dài để biết em đến từ đâu”. In a
simple way, we just only say: “Phải rất lâu tôi mới biết em từ đâu đến.”
2. Aims and objectives of the study
2.1 Aims
The above-mentioned background shows that the status of non-finite
clauses in English needs more detailed study not only in their structure and
forms but also in uses as well. That is the aim of the study. Moreover, it is also
helping Vietnamese learners, who are learning English have a deeply
understanding about English non-finite clauses and provide students with
knowledge of the translation of English non-finite clauses.
2.2 Objectives
- Describe English non-finite and how to translate them into Vietnamese.
- Improve skills in translation.
-Suggest some recommendations to have the effective way in EnglishVietnamese translation of English non-finite clauses.

3. Scope of the study
In this thesis, I would like to concentrate on translating English non-finite
clauses, because of the time-limited and my ability. I will study on the
Vietnamese equivalents, which are used to compare and analyze to English nonfinite clauses. After that, there will be some recommendations in EnglishVietnamese translation.

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To clear thesis, there will be some samples sentences, which are non-finite
clauses taken from bilingual non-literary and literary works for analysis.

4. Research questions
1, How many ways of translating non-finite clauses? What are they?
2, What are the suggestions for learning and translating non-finite clauses?

5. Methods of the study
Being a student of Foreign Language Department, after years of learning
English, studying translation, I was equipped with many skills or techniques for
translation. This graduation paper is carried out with the view to help learners
have general understanding about translation and translation of English nonfinite clauses. To successfully complete this topic, I will carry out a number of
methods:
- Consult my supervisor, my friends.
- Method for collecting data to search documents and the sources of information
such as on internet, TV, reference books, newspapers, universities, etc…
- Method for data analysis

6. Design of the study
My graduation paper is divided into three parts and the second,naturally, is the
most important part.

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*The first part is the Introduction, including the rationale, aims, scope, research
questions and method and design of the study.
*The second part is the Development that includes three chapters:
+ Chapter I: Theoretical background: It focuses on the concepts
oftranslation, and non-finite clauses, translation methods, forms of non-finite
clauses, syntactic features of non-finite clauses, Functions of non-finite clauses,
position of non-finite clauses, Semantic meanings of non-finite clauses
+ Chapter II: Methods and Procedures
+Chapter III: Findings and Discussions: It focuses on the ways of
translating infinitive clauses, ways of translating participle clauses, ways of
translating of gerund clauses
*The last part is the Conclusion in which I summary the study and
recommendations.

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PART B: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1.1Definition of translation
Translation has been variously defined and ideas on translation are
diversified and contradictory. The following quotes taken from different sources
provide an overview of range of diversity of opinions on the concept of
translation:
* Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closet natural
equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and
secondly in terms of style. (Nida & Taber 1974:12).
* Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (source
language) by equivalent textual material in another language (target language).
(Catford 1965:20).
* Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message
and/or statements in one language by the same message and/or statement in
another language. (Newmark, 1981:7). Also, according to Newmark, translation
as the attempt to produce approximate equivalence or respectable synonymy
between two chunks of different languages on various levels of which two main
ones are thought and linguistic form. Newmark adds that translation is partly an
exercise in the art of writing as well as a field of comparative applied linguistics
(1988, p.26). Newmark believes that grammatical meaning is more significant,
less precise, more general and sometimes more elusive than lexical meaning.
Since syntactic differences existing among languages may cause problem in
translation, due tosome characteristics of the Vietnamese language, which differ

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from English and should beconsidered in order to produce an acceptable
translation.
In short, translation is a creative intellectual activity, denoting the
transmitting of information from a source language in a form of target language.
These definitions clearly affirmed that the goal of translation is the
transformation of one language into another language but the content of the
message should be unchanged despite the translator’s creation in using
equivalent words or restructuring sentence structures. The common goal of
translation is that translator change equivalently semantics, grammatical
structures, lexis, cultural context and communication situation into target
language to help reader understand the content of the source language.
1.2Translation methods
There are many different methods of translation: literal, word -for -word,
faithful, free, idiomatic, semantic, communicative…
- word-for-word translation: preservation of word order and as literal
translation as possible of individual words, including cultural words.
- literal translation: apart from as literal as possible translation of
individual words, grammatical structures are converted into the nearest
target language equivalents.
- faithful translation: stays, if possible, within the constraints of the
grammatical structures of the target text, but draws on certain contextual
factors.
- semantic translation: more emphasis on naturalness than in faithful
translation, and translation of certain cultural words into neutral
equivalents in the TL.
- communicative translation: aims at reproducing the exact message of the
source text content-wise and context-wise but with emphasis on
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naturalness and acceptability/comprehensiveness to the target text
readership.
- idiomatic translation: makes use of idioms and colloquialisms that are not
present in the source text.
- free translation: focuses on the content of the target text rather than the
form, which means that the same content is expressed in the target text but
with very different grammatical structures if need be
-

adaptation: the freest form of translation and more of a target
language/culture based interpretation of the source text than a translation
as such, this is sometimes called document design.

However, the translator can choose the best one, depending on the context.
Semantic and communicative translation are used most because they are easily
acceptable and comprehensible to the readers or listeners and have high
accuracy as well as naturalness in translation.
1.3Definition of non-finite clauses
* Non-finite clauses contain a verb which does not show tense. We usually
use non-finite verbs only in subordinate clauses. We usually understand the time
referred to from the context of the main clause. (Cambridge dictionaries)
We often use a non-finite clause when the subject is the same as the subject in
the main clause:
For example:
I had something to eat before leaving. (I had something to eat before I
left.)
* A non-finite clause is a dependent clause whose verb is non-finite; for
example, many languages can form non-finite clauses from infinitives,
participles and gerunds. Like any dependent (subordinate) clause, a non-finite
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clause serves a grammatical role-commonly that of a noun, adjective, or adverbin a greater clause that contains it. (FromWikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
* According to Peter Collins and Carmella Hollo in “English Grammar –
an Introduction” (18), A non-finite clause is a subordinate clause with a nonfinite verb as the first or only verb: an infinitive, a present participle or a past
participle and gerund.
1.4 Forms of non-finite clauses
1.4.1 The infinitive
a- The Present Infinitive clauses
For example:
It was not a very difficult question to answer.
(Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There by Lewis
Carroll)
He tried to get up.
He did not want to look at the fish.
(The Old Man and The Sea by Ernest
Hemingway)
He was very anxious to see the effect of the birthday letter…
(The Rocking-Horse Winner by D. H. Lawrence)
b- The Present Continuous Infinitive clauses

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For example:
He seemed to be listening.
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
The sound of the mortar-fire seemed to be closing in, or perhaps it
was the enemy at last replying.
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
He seemed to be looking for words on his desk with which to
convey his meaning as precisely as I had done.
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
Scarlett seemed to be paying little attentionto what they said,
although she made the correct answers.
(Gone with the Wind by Margaret
Mitchell)
c- The Perfect Infinitive clauses
For example:
It seemed a long enough journey to have made with the killing of
those two as the only result.
Even the two soldiers seemed to have relaxed a little.
We seem to have talked about pretty nearly everythingexcept God.
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)

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This time the poor Gnat really seemed to have sighed itself away…
(Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There by Lewis
Carroll)
d- The Perfect Continuous Infinitive clauses
For example:
I’d like to have been sitting there when she walked in.
e- The Present Infinitive Passive clauses
For example:
Eighty percent of Britain’s sewage works are breaking pollution
laws, according to a report to be published this week.
(Carthy M.M., 1993)
It amazes me that average, ordinary people eagerly trade in the
serenity of the ground for the chance to be tossed through the air like
vegetables in a food processor.
f- The Perfect Infinitive Passive clauses
For example:
He ought now to have been at school.
I never thought thus to have declared aloud.
(Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë)

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1.4.2 The gerund
a- The Present Gerund clauses
For example:
Would you mind identifying him?
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
Do you mind stopping at the cable office?
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
Children like playing computer games.
b- The Perfect Gerund clauses
For example:
We were overjoyed at the news of China having launched another
man-made satellite.
c- The Present Gerund Passive Clauses
For example:
I don’t remember being told of the decision to change the
company policy on vocations.
The children enjoyed being taken to the zoo.
d- The Perfect Gerund Passive clauses
For example:
The safe showed no signs of having been touched.

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1.4.3 The participle clauses
Like infinitive and gerund clauses, participle clauses can appear in various
aspects and voices.
a- The Present Participle Clauses
For example:
Being an official of the transport sector, Thăng is famous for his
management and firm decisions.
(Transport Minister Thăng appointed HCM City's Party chief/ Wednesday, 17
February 2016/ Vietnam news)
Do you know the person being arrested?
Having run all the way from Marathon to Athens, the messenger
died.
b- The Past Participle Clauses
For example:
Accustomed to John Reed's abuse, I never had an idea of replying
to it.
(Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë)
Seated with Stuart and Brent Tarleton in the cool shade of the
porch of Tara, her father's plantation, that bright April afternoon of 1861, she
made a pretty picture.
(Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell)

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c- The Perfect Participle clauses (Active)
For example:
Having maneuvered them away from the boring subject of war,
she went back with interest to their immediate situation.
(Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell)
Having become completely deaf, Beethoven was forced to compose
music “in his head”.
d- The Perfect Participle Clauses (Passive)
For example:
Having been introduced to the president, he could think of nothing
to say.
Having been shot, he was rushed to a nearly hospital.
Having been married ten years and still living in an apartment, the
wife would often complain about anything, as she was tired of saving every
penny to buy a "dream home".
1.5 Syntactic features of non-finite clauses
The participle and full infinitive clauses can be used to combine two
clauses.
1.5.1 The present participle clause
- A present participle clause replacing a relative clause:

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For example:
The girl who is drinking coffee is Mary Allen.
= The girl drinking coffee is Mary Allen.
- A present participle clause can replace an independent clause:
For example:
I walked into the room and saw him sitting alone.
= Walking into the room and I saw him sitting alone.
- A present participle clause can replace a subordinate clause:
For example:
As he did not know the way to the airport, he asked a policeman.
= Not knowing the way to the airport, he asked a policeman.
1.5.2 The past participle clause
-The past participle clause is used when the verb in the main clause or
relative clause is passive:
For example:
He was given a medal by the judger, he returned to his seal.
= Given a medal by the judger, he returned to his seal.
1.5.3 The full infinitive clause
- The full infinitive used to replace a relative clause:
For example:
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He was the first man who left the burning house.
= He was the first man to leave the burning house.
1.6 Functions of non-finite clauses
- A non-finite clause may function as an integral sentence element.
For example:
To take an Annamite to bed with youis like taking a bird: they twitter
and sing on your pillow.
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
- A non-finite clause may function as a separate subordinateClause.
For example:
Speaking of heroes, there’s something kind of heroic about this show.
Speaking of food, it’s time to head home and light the grill.
Looking out of the window, I saw groups of children passing by the
house.
Working on a newspaper one does not learn the way to break bad news,
and even now I had to think of my paper and to ask her.
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
1.7 Position of non-finite clauses
*English non-finite clauses can be at initial, medial and final positions in the
sentence.
- Initial: All non-finite clauses can be at the beginning of the sentence.
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For example:
Walking up the street, I heard a bell ring.
Seating himself in an arm-chair, he intimated by a gesture that I was to
approach and stand before him.
(Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë)
Looking around, I saw on the north side of the coming party two other
men riding at breakneck speed.
- Medial: All non – finite clauses are in the middle of the sentence.
For example:
But the little prince, having now completed his preparations for
departure, had no wish to grieve the old monarch.
(The Little Prince)
I came up out of the floor, talking to reassure them, telling them that my
car was outside, that I had run out of petrol.
(The Quiet American by Graham Greene)
You are, to put it in English, very much in error.
- Final
For example:
The thief wore gloves so as to avoid leaving any fingerprints.
In fact, I should distinctly warn ingenious youth to avoid imitating my
example.

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1.8 Semantic meanings of non-finite clauses
* Semantically, English non – finite clauses have three main types:
Elaboration, Extension and Enhancement.
1.8.1 Extension
- For the main clause, non-finite clauses help to expand more information,
consists of addition and variation. The non – finite clause is often introduced by
a preposition or a preposition group functioning conjunctively.
For instance:
a- ADDITION
- Additive
For example:
Besides offering incense at Princess Huyen Tran Temple and Emperor
Tran Nhan Tong (1258-1308) Temple, the festival also included spiritual
activities such as praying for the safety of people, flower garlands…
(Festival pays tribute to devoted individuals’ /Wednesday, 17 February 2016/
Vietnam news).
Besides giving lucky money, many other banks also diversify its
promotion programme to attract depositors at this occasion.
(Banks offering post-Tet holiday promotions to attract depositors/ February, 18
2016/ Vietnam news).
- Adversarive

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For example:
He 'd been on the beach without anyone noticing him.
He has embarked on a huge project, without realizing what is
involved.
They said goodbye, without knowing that they were never to meet
again.
Boa constrictors swallow their prey whole, without chewing
b- VARIATION
- Replacive
For example:
Instead of being a scientist, he is a teacher.
- Subtractive
For example:
You won’t get any information from him other than by paying
him
1.8.2 Enhancement
* Besides, non-finite clauses are also used to enhance the meaning of the
previous clauses such as Time, Condition, Manner, Concession, Contrast,
Reason, Purpose and Result.
For example:
Take extra care when going alone at night. (Time)
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