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Hình múa trong kiến trúc chùa tháp phật giáo khmer nam bộ lê ngọc canh

Nghien ciru Tfln giao. Sd2 - 2012

50

HINH MUA TRONG KIEN TRtC
CHUA THAP PHAT GIAO KHMER NAM BO
L£N<;occ\Mr'
e tim hieu nghe thuat mfla (hinh
mua) t r o n g kie'n true chfla t h i p
Phat g i i o Khmer Nam Bd, thi c i n thie't
phai tim hieu sd Irfdc ve tdn giao, bdi
chung cd md'i quan he hflrf cd vdi nhau.
Chua, thap la bieu trfdng dac trrfng ciia
van hda Phat giao Tieu Thrfa cua ngrfdi
JChmer d Nam Bd. Song, trrfdc dd khoang
the' ki I sau Cdng nguyen, Baiamdn giao
da la tdn giao quan trpng cua gidi quy
tpc. Tfl the ki XIII, Phat giao Tieu Thfla
mdi p h i t trien manh me va trd thanh tdn
giao chinh thd'ng cua toan cdng ddng
ngrfdi Khmer d ddng bang sdng Cijfu

Long, Nam Bd. Tuy Baiamdn giao da suy
tan, nhrfng a n h hrfdng cua nd cdn sau
dam trong tam thflc con ngfldi va t r o n g
kie'n true chiia thap.

D

Dieu nay cho ta t h i y r d net trong nghe
thuat miia (hinh mua) t r o n g kie'n true
chiia thap cua Phat g i i o . Dd la hinh mua
vu nfl Apsara, chim t h i n Ma Ha Krut,
chim t h i n Garada va ca Linga bieu
trfdng linh thieng cua Ba la mdn giao. Dd
la srf hda nhap, giao thoa gifla Baiamdn
giad va Phat g i i o Tieu Thfla t r o n g van
hda tdn giao cua ngrfdi Khmer d dong
b i n g sdng Cufu Long (DBSCL).
L Tdn giao cua ngrfdi Khmer

1.1. Bdlamdn

giao

De tim hi^u nghe t h u i t miia (Mnh
mua) trong cac chiia t h i p cua P h i t giao
Nam tdng Khmer, thi e i n thie't phai tim
hieu khai irfdc vc tdn giao va chiia thap
cua ngrfdi Khmer. Bdi hp la chu nhan
s i n g tao van hda va kie'n true chua thap,
ma d dd da nay sinh nghe t h u i t miia
(hinh mua) nhfl mdt dae trrfng, mdt yeii to
cau thanh nghe thuat kie'n true chua thap
cua ngrfcft Khmer d DBSCL. Chfla thap la
bieu tfldng dac trrfng eiia ngfldi Khmer
tdn tai, phat trien, bie'n doi theo chieu dai
lich sfl tie'n hda van hda tpc ngfldi. Noi tcfi
van hda ngrfdi Khmer la phai ndi tdi van
hda kie'n true chua thap, ma chua thap va
hinh miia gan vdi tdn giao tao nen the
thd'ng nhi't hufu ed vdi nhau trong van

hda Khmer.
Ngrfdi Khmor, mdt d i n tpc tu cfl rat
sdm d v u n g DBSCL, lien ke't cdng ddng
chat che t h a n h nhflng phum sdc. •'Theo
nhieu ngudn tai lieu lich suf ma chiing ta
bie't drfdc thi tfl 200 - 300 n a m trrfde Cong
nguyen, ngfldi Khmer d DBSCL da scoig
t i p t r u n g t h a n h phum k h d n g cdn do
canh du crf. Hp ed tie'ng ndi rieng sing
t r o n g n g d i n h a n h d ldp b a n g dfla niftJii.
*. PGS. TS. NSND.. Ha NOi.


Le Ngoc Canh. Hinh mua irong kie'n tri'ic.
nhufng diing bua dd'n gd, dung da mai cp
luta, diing hu drfng lua, dung chau drfng
nrfdc va rrfdu..."*".
Thdi nay sinh hoat van hda chu ye'u cua
ngrfdi Khmer Nam Bd la tin ngrfdng thd
t h i n Neakta ( t h i n bao hd), Arak (thin bao
ve ddng hp), chrfa cd tdn giao chua thap.
Khoang the'ki I hp mdi tie'p nhan Baiamdn
giao tfl An Dp deh vdi ngrfdi Cham rdi lan
tda deh ngrfdi Khmer Nam Bd. Sau dd, dan
d i n Baiamdn giao phat trien ben viing, va
trd thanh tdn giao chinh d cdng ddng
ngrfdi Kilmer. Baiamdn giao da in dam
trong tam thflc va cd anh hrfdng tdi nhieu
linh vrfc trong sinh hoat van hda, xa hdi
cua ngrfdi Khmer vflng Nam Bd. Dd la tuc
cac t h i n Indra, Visnu, Siva, Khoang the'ki
XIII trd di ngfldi Khmer Nam Bd da
chuyen sang phung thd Phat giao Tieu
Thuta cho deh nay.
Tuy Phat giao Tieu Thfla da phat trien
manh me va n h a n h chdng trd thanh tdn
giao chinh thd'ng cua toan cdng dong
ngrfdi Khmer Nam Bd, nhrfng anh hrfdng
va gia tri eua eae than, cac hinh trfdng
t h i n cua Baiamdn giao in dam va van
hien dien t r o n g tam thrfe, hda an trong
tin ngrfdng dan gian va kie'n true chua
thap cua hp.
"Dac biet Yeay Khmao va Kekhiham la
nhiing Neakta thay hien dien d khap
viing ddng bang sdng Cu^ Long. Rd rang
day la nhflng hinh trfdng t h i n dan gian
drfdc gan eho cac thudc tinh, c i c hda t h i n
cua Visnu, Siva. Cd the ndi t h i n eua dao
Baiamdn v i n cdn drfdc bao Iflrf siing kinh
trong xa hdi ngfldi Khmer DBSCL, gom
cd ba vi chinh;

51
Prum

: La than tao ra the gidi

Siva
: La t h i n tan pha the' gian
(edn gpi la Eisau)
Visnu
: La t h i n eflu giup the'gian
(tieng Khmer gpi la Noareay hoac
Hari) Tfldng Linga - Ydni nhufng bieu
trfdng cua Dao giao v i n cdn tim t h i y d
mdt so' chua va trfdng drfdc dat d ncSi
trang nghiem nhfl trrfdc chinh dien
(Chua 'Kanhchdng" con gpi la chua •Ciy
he"

)•«'.

Nhrfng hinh trfdng than cua Baiamdn
giao cung la nhftng hinh trfdng mua
trong kie'n true chua, thap Khmer, ma
chua thap la mdt dac trrfng bieu trfdng
cua Phat giao Tieu Thfla cua cdng ddng
ngrfdi Khmer vung DBSCL.
tS. Phat giao
Phat giao de'n vdi ngfldi Khmer kha
sdm, cd le chi sau Baiamdn giao khdng
lau, nhrfng khdng drfde phat trien, md
nhat so vdi Baiamdn giao. Bdi, gidi quy
tdc Khmer siing bai Baiamdn giao va la
tdn giao ngrf tri trong tam thrfc, trf
trfdng, tinh cam cua gidi quy tdc, nen nd
phat trien manh rae. Cdn da sd' dan ngheo
theo Phat giao Tieu Thfla. Nhrf vay, thdi
gian nay, ngrfdi Khmer viing DBSCL tdn
tai, phat trien hai tdn giao la Baiamdn
giao va Phat giao Tieu Thfla.
IQioang the' ki XII - XIII cd nhieu bie'n
ddng cua lich sut, cua xa hpi ngrfdi
Khmer, quan trpng la srf phan chia, mau
thuan trong gidi quy tdc. Do dd, ddi sd'ng
1. Trirong Litii (chii bien).rc/;i hda ngirdi Khmer
viing ddng hdng sdng Cim Long. Nxb. Van hoa dan

toe. 1993,mNdi. tr. 26.
2. Trucing Luu (chu h]sn).Vdn hda ngirdi Khmer
virng ddng bdng sdng Ciru L

Nghien ciru T6n giao. St')'2 - 20!2

52
van hda tdn g i i o . t i m linh cua cdng
ddng ngrfdi Khmer vung DBSCL cd
nhrfng bie'n ddi m a n h me cd tinh lich sii.
Thdi ki nay Phflt g i i o Tieu Thfla da vrfdn
len chie'm ngrf tinh t h i n , tfl trfdng, tinh
cam, tam linh cua toan cpng ddng ngrfdi
Khmer Nam Bd. Phat giao d i n d i n p h i t
trien ben vflng t r o n g n h i n d i n v i gidi
quy tdc, trd thanh tdn giao chinh thdng
cua ngfldi Khmor Nam Bd. Bdi 16 Phat
giao Tieu Thfla da tdn tai lau dai t r o n g
dan chung vdi g i i o Ii hrfdng thien tfl bi
nhan ai, yen ianh, tinh n h i n van cao ci.
Gidi quy tde cung d i n d i n trf bo Baiamdn
giio, de'n vdi Phfi-t giao Tieu Thfla hda
ddng cung vdi dan chflng. Tfl thdi diem
lich sfl nay (the ki XII - XIII) Phat giao
Tieu Thfla la tdn giao chinh thd'ng cua
toan cdng dong ngfldi Khmer Nam Bd.
2. Chua t h a p Khmer
Chiia va t h i p cd vai trd y nghia dac
biet quan t r p n g vdi ngfldi Khmer Nam
Bd. Nd la dac trrfng bieu trfdng linh
thieng cua di san van hda, tdn giao, kie'n
true Khmer. Chfla la t r u n g tam sinh hoat
van hda, xa hpi, nghe thuat va phong tuc,
tap quan, le n g h i cua t o i n cdng ddng
phum sdc. G i n nhrf phum sdc nao eung
cd rapt ngdi chiia, hoac mdt sd' phum sdc
cd mpt ngdi chua. Theo thd'ng ke chfla
d i y du, cdng d d n g ngrfdi Khmer cd
khoang sau t r a m ngdi chiia. Kinh phi
xay drfng chiia truyen thd'ng chu ye'u la
tfl cdng dflc cua toan dan. Mac d i u cude
sd'ng cd nhieu khd khan, nhrfng hp deu
ddng gdp td'i da cho ngdi chua cua phum
sdc dfldc quy md, h o i n h t r a n g , be the', bdi
ndi dd la ndi guti gam niem tin, ndi niem
tam linh, tinh cam, y thflc cua con ngfldi

vdi Thich Ca Mau Ni, vdi ngdi chiia linh
thieng cua hp. Dao phap, dao li, the' tuc,
tdn g i i o da hda n h i p lam mdt.
Chua, t h i p l i mot q u i n the kie'n true
ddc d i o cua ngfldi Khmer Nam Bd, hpi tu
n a n g Iflc s a n g tao, tri thrfc van hda, tu
duy t h i m mi cua eon ngrfdi. Theo nguyen
tic, quy rfdc truydn thd'ng chfla g i n vdi
thap, xay chua l i tie'p de'n x i y thap.
Chfla la ndi sinh hoat Phat giao, ndi
tu h a n h cua cae srf sai, la trrfdng hpc chft
hpc dao li lam ngrfdi, hpc kinh Phflt, giao
li. Chua la t r u n g tam van hda, xa hpi va
nhieu linh vrfc sinh hoat van hda cdng
ddng, la ncA dieu hanh. chi phd'i dao va
ddi cua cac srf sal. Ngoai ra, chua cdn la
ndi sinh boat van hda, n g h e thuat, gan
bd vdi vdng ddi ngrfdi, trf luc sinh ra dm
khi ve cdi vinh h a n g . Chiia la bleu trfdng,
la ehd drfa t i n h than, g a n bd s i u dim
t r o n g t i m k h a m cua Phat tur; cua mpi
t h a n h vien cdng dong ngrfdi Khmer Nam
Bp. Dao va ddi, tuy la hai nhrfng lai co si^
g a n ke't chat che cd t i n h nhat the.
Kie'n true chiia t h a p la mdt q u i n the
di san van hda ddc dao cua ngrfdi Khmer
Nam Bd, d dd hdi tu ban sac, tri tue, tai
n a n g s a n g tao van hda ciia toan cong
ddng. Chfla, t h a p drfdc xay drfng tren mot
viing da't r d n g ldn, vdi nhieu dang kieu
kie'n trfle, nhieu loai h i n h nghe thuit,
dieu khac, hdi hpa. t r a n g tri v i hinh
trfdng mua. Cung vdi kie'n true chfla th&p
la nhieu h a n g cay cao vut, n h i n tong the
chfla t h i p la mot q u i n the kie'n true quy
md, h o a n h t r i n g , long l i y , uy nghi. Nen
chua pho bie'n la t a m cap (ba b i e nen),
nen t h i p n h i t cd k h i cao tdi g i n hai met)
hoac cao hdn, tao cho the' ehua viing


jr^^^gg£_^^-/^^'^^^^ ^^"'^^ ^''oi'^S k'^'fi fi'i'ic-

53

chic, be the. Cd the ke de'n chua K h l e n g
d thi x a Sdc Trang; ehua Ong Met
(Bothisalareay) d thi xa Tra Vinh; chua
Kimphisaco d Bac Lieu; chfla x a Ldng, xa
Dai Tan, My Xuyen; chfla Champa, xa
Phu Tam, huyen My Tu, Sdc Trang; ehiia
Dom Melichei, Rach Gia, Kien Giang

- Nha be'p: Chua vdi ngrfdi Khmer la
ndi dien r a nhieu loai hinh sinh hoat van
hda edng ddng, dac biet la le hdi chua.
Nen khudn vicn chua cd xay drfng nha
be'p, ndi de n i u an de ciing Phat va thufc
p h i m do srf sai cdng ddng de'n drf le, te't,
hpi chua thu hrfdng.

Khudn vien chfla truyen thd'ng Khmer
thrfdng cd td'ng the kieh true nhrf sau:

- Cdng chua: La cufa ngd vao chfla,
chua nao cung cd cdng vdi quy md to,
nhd, dd so, hoanh t r a n g uy nghi khac
nhau. Cdng chfla cung la rapt kieu kie'n
true ddc dao ciia chua Khmor Nam Bp. Cd
the kc de'n mdt sd' cdng chua dep la cdng
chua Pre Budn Prdphec (Chua Bd'n Mat),
ehua Ch'mui Tim Chas, chua K h l e n g d
Sdc Trang.

Chinh dien (Prekvihia): la quan
trpng b i c nhat t r o n g kie'n true chua. Non
(Khrfdn) chinh dicn cd nhieu ci'p eao,
rdng, cd nhieu b i c len xud'ng, mat chinh
dien nhat thie't phai hrfdng Ddng.
- Nha thieu: phd bie'n d dan toe Khmer
c6 tuc le khi cd ngrfdi che't thi phai hda
tang, nen t r o n g khudn vien chua cd xay
nha thieu de thieu xae cae srf sai va cac
thanh vien t r o n g sdc khi qua ddi.
- Sala (pahusant - n h a tang): Trong
khudn vien chiia k h d n g chi cd mdt Sala
ma cd nhieu Sala de eho cac srf sai sinh
boat, nghi ngcfi. Trong c i c tda nha Sala
cd mdt tda n h a de cho cac vi srf sai ca
(Luk Krou) sinh hoat, n g h i ngdi va tiep
khach gpi la Sala Thien. Mdt sd' ehua cd
Sala danh r i e n g cho khach d xa n g h i
ngdi.

Trong khudn vien kie'n true chua thap
Khmer cd nhieu t r a n g tri, hpa tie% dieu
khac, hdi hpa vdi nhieu hinh tfldng, mo
tip de tai khac nhau. Nhrf hinh trfdng
Rdng (Niek), Ticn nfl hinh chim (Te'p pro
nam), chim t h i n (Garuda), t h i n vu nfl,
chim than (Kay Nd), C h i n g (Yak), than
dat (Hcng prd at Thd Ni), Ria Hu, Linga,
Trong dd cd mdt so' hinh trfdng mua ddc
dao, dac sac trong kie'n true chua, thap,
cdng chua Khmer d Nam Bd.

- Trrfdng hoc: Cd vai trd quan trpng
trong viec truyen ba giao 11, dao li lam
ngrfdi. Nhrfng trrfdc he't la phai hpc chrf
Khmer va van hda cho cac tre em trong
sde. Trrfdng hpc cung la ncft Irfrf gifl cae
pho sach cua Baiamdn giao va Phat giao.
Mpi ngrfdi de'n day deu thflc hien 8 dieu
td't: Suy n g h i td't; Ndi dieu td't; Lam dieu

Qua khao cflu khai Irfdc ve tdn giao va
kie'n trflc chua thap Khmer Nam Bd, cho
thi'y hinh trfdng mua, than mfla, ticn nrf
mua cd lien quan tdi nghe thuS-t mua la
mdt bieu hien dac trrfng van hda ndi
chung va chua thap ndi rieng. Ndi each
khac la hinh trfdng mua, t h i n mua, tien
nrf la rapt t r o n g nhftng loai hinh gdp
phan ca'u thanh nghe thuat kie'n true
chua thap Khmer vung Nam Bd.

I td't; Y chi td't; Sieng n a n g td't; Y thflc td't;
I Thien dinh td't; Tu t a m td't.

3. Hinh mua t r o n g kieh true chua thap
Khmer


Nghien ciJu TAn giao. Sd2^20J2^

54
Hinh mua t r o n g chiia t h i p Khmer
dflpc the hicn rd net la qua nghp t h u i t
dieu k h i e , hdi hpa. t r a n g tri, dd la nhflng
pho trfdng. nhiing bfle t r a n h vo nghd
thuat mua hoae ed lien quan tdi mfla.
Nhflng trfdng mua nay lam bang ehi't
lieu da cd nien dai tfl the' ki VII de'n the'
ki XVIII, an minh trong cac trfdng t h i n .
Cac trfdng dd la: T h i n Suria (Mat Trdi),
than Gancxa (diu voi minh ngrfdi), nfl
t h i n Uma, v.v...
Hicn nay, hinh trfdng ngfldi mua, canh
mua edn ton tai t r o n g cac kie'n true chua,
thap, cdng chua cd mdt so' hinh tfldng
mua saiu
Vu nfl tren dinh thap
Miia tren thap
Miia ticn nfl (Te'p pro Nora)
Mfla tien nfl hinh ca
Vu nfl (Kay No)
Chim than Garuda
Chim t h i n Ma ha Krut
Vu nfl Apsara
Hinh ngrfdi nhay mua trong chua
3.1. Hinh mua VU nii Kay No
K i y No t r o n g truyen thuye't, t h i n
thoai drfdc mieu ta la mdt tien nfl dep
tuyet vdi ciia the' gidi thien t h i n . Kay No
cung cdn cd ten gpi la chim than, bay
Ifldn nhrf loai chim, vu nfl t h i n tien mua
dep quye'n r u thien t h i n , dfldc g i a n g tran
de'n vdi cufa Phat, de'n vdi t r i n gian. Vc
vu nfl thien than cd nhieu di ban khac
nhau. Du sao thi nfl t h i n Kay No cung la
mdt hien trfdng dac biet t r o n g kie'n true
ehiia cua ngfldi Khmer Nam Bd. Nhflng
ngdi chua d i y du hoan thien trong kie'n

trflc chfla bao gid cflng cd srf hien dieu
oua vfl nfl thien t h i n K i y , N o tren phan
d i u cua mdi cdt d h a n h lang' cua chua
theo th6' chim bay: hai tay gid cao sang
hai bdn, n g a n g dinh d i u dd than sa ciia
m i i chfla; drfdi ddi tay cd khac hinh canh
chim nhrf dang Ifldn bay, hai chan sat
vao nhau, d the' c h i n khuyu, toan than
lao vd phia trfldc, ngflc rfdn.
Vu nfl thien t h i n Kay No khdng chi cd
trong kie'n true chua ma cdn hipn dien
t r o n g kie'n true cdng chfla dfldc dat d vi
tri quan trpng, tren cao ciia cac cdt tru
cua cdng chiia va cflng d trf the', trang tri
nhrf d cac h a n g cdt chua.
3.3. Hinh mua chim than Ma Ha Krdt
Chim than Ma Ha Krut drfdC bd tri d
nhieu vi tri khac nhau, d chiia va cong
ehua. Chim t h i n Ma Ha Krut, cd nhiing
net g i n gui vdi loai Garuda cd xrfa cua
ngrfdi Cham, ngrfdi Campuchia, nhrfng
khac xa vdi Garuda cua ngrfdi Cham,
ngrfdi Campuchia bdi srf s i n g tao dpc
dao Clia ngfldi Khmer Nam Bd.
Ngrfdi Khmer suy tdn Ma Ha Krut la
chim t h i n , chim mfla, ticn mua, bdi tao
dang, tao the' ciia Ma Ha Krflt nhrf chim
dang mua, ngrfdi chim miia. Chim than
drfdc can tao hai p h i n , p h a n tren la dau
chim, p h a n dfldi la than ngrfdi can doi
hai hda, hai tay dfla r d n g s a n g hai ben,
vflcfti eao, nhrf c i n h chim d a n g bay, dang
mua. Non ngrfdi Khmer gpi la chim thin,
chim mua.
Ma Ha Krut thrfdng drfdc c i u tao theo
hinh khd'i. Trfdng drfdc due bang chat
lieu xi m a n g hoac b i n g cha't lieu gd, rat
dep, tinh xao, cd gia tri bieu trrfng, gia
tri n g h e thuat cao.


Le Ngoc Canh. Hiithmi'ia trong Icie'n tnic...
Phan tren la d i u chim dpi mu nhon
mau sac, mat to loi, mieng ngam vien
ngpc xanh. P h i n drfdi la than ngrfdi, hai
ddi tay tao thanh canh chim, ngrfdi vrfdn
ra phia trfldc, ddi c h i n chum lai nhrf co
chan bay. P h a n than ngfldi t r a n g phuc
nhrf canh chim, p h i n chan q u i n bd sit.
Ne'u Ma Ha Krut eau tao hinh khd'i b i n g
xi mang thi t r a n g tri, mau s i c ra't rrfc rd,
thien ve gam ndng. Ne'u tao hinh khd'i
bang chat lieu gd, thi mau s i c it hdn,
thien ve gam tram, gam lanh. Pho bie'n la
trfdng khd'i bang xi mang. Cd rapt sd'
viing, trfdng khd'i b a n g gd, nhrfng thfldng
la d cac ngdi chua cd. Vi du; trfdng gd d
chua Phrfdn, chua Ang d Tra Vinh. Ciing
cd mdt so' trfldng hdp bie'n doi di ban
dau va t h i n ngrfdi, p h i n chan lai la chan
chim, dang t h e ' g i n nhrf vu nfl thien than
Kay No, d i u dpi m u nhpn, ao bd sat
ngrfdi, than ngrfdi ud'n eong nhrf chim
dang miia. Chim t h i n bie'n the nay cdn
tim tha'y d chua Brfng Cdk d Hau Giang.
3.3. Hinh mua tien nd Top Pro Nom
Tien nrf la trfdng h i n h khd'i trdn drfdc
ca'u tao tfl c h i t lieu xi m a n g hoac chat
lieu gd, da p h i n la chat lieu xi mang.
Tien nfl Te'p Pro Nom dfldc the Men vdi
khudn mat mdt phu nfl r a n g rd, xinh dep,
quye'n rii, tay c i m binh khi, uy nghi nhrf
mdt vd trfdng. Ngfldi dflng thang, hai
chan sat n h a u tao the' viing chac. Than
ngrfdi t r a n g phuc q u i n i o bd s i t ngrfdi,
ao cd hai ta vat cheo tfl bung r a sau Irfng,
hai tay gid len cao, vrfdn r d n g nhrf dang
bay, dang mua. Cd trrfdng hdp hinh
trfdng tien nfl Te'p Pro Nom cd bie'n ddi la
tay cira binh khi nhrf cung ten, thanh
dao trf the' vrfdn ra phia trrfdc nhrf chie'n

55

dau, chd'ng lai Irfc Irfdng aclaching (Yak).
Tien nfl Top Pro Nom thfldng crfdi voi
hoac crfdi ngrfa nhrf nrf tfldng xdng tran.
Trfdng tien nfl drfdc bd' tri d nhflng vi
tri khac nhau trong mdi chua, nhrf dat d
gan phan d i u cot hien, hoac phia ngoai
ciia chinh dien chua, hoac d vi tri tren
efla sd chinh dien cua chua.
3.4. Hinh mua tien nded
Diu va than la ticn nfl, p h i n chan la
dudi ca dang ud'n Irfdn, phan ngrfdi vrfdn
ra phia trrfdc, ngu!c cang trdn, hai canh
tay gid len cao nhfl canh ticn dang bay
Ifldn, tao dang, the miia dep.
Hinh trfdng mua ticn nrf ca drfdc cau
tao theo hinh khd'i trdn, bang chat lieu
xi mang cd hoa van hpa tie't mau sac rrfc
rd. Trfdng drfdc bd' tri d p h i n d i u cac cdt
hien, hai tay nhrf bay va dd mai hien cua
chiia. Hinh trfdng mua, mdtip mua gan
nhrf hinh trfdng mua vu nrf thien t h i n
Kay No. Ndi each khac la dang bie'n the
(di ban) eua vu nfl thien t h i n Kay No.
3.5. Hinh mua thdn da't Hcng Prd dt
ThdNi
T h i n dat drfdc ngrfdi Khmer tdn thd
nhrf vi t h i n bao hp, dem Iai srf i'm no cho
mudn dan, va xua dudi ta ma, ac quy, la
niem tin cua cdng ddng ngrfdi Khmer.
Bdi vay tao hinh la brfc trfdng khd'i trdn,
trfdng than diing gifla bdng sen dang nd,
uy nghi, be the', dfldi dang mdt tien nfl
dang vrfdn minh mua gifla dda hoa sen.
Dau dpi khan mdng nhrf ang raay bay
ket hdp vdi mai tdc dai nhrf sud'i tdc chay
xud'ng hai bd vai, mdt tay nang mai tdc
dai, ngrfc cang trdn rfdn ra phia trrfdc
drfdc phu dfldi ldp vai mdng.


56
Tfldng t h i n d i t Hcng Prd At Thd Ni
drfdc bd tri d phia sau be thd Phat t r o n g
chinh dien chfla. Cung cd trrfdng hdp
hinh trfdng mua cua t h i n dfldc vo tren
bflc trfdng t r o n g kie'n true chfla vdi mau
sac rrfc rd,
3.6. Hinh mim vu nd Apsara
Tfl the ki d i u Cdng nguyen, Bilamdn
giao da du nhap tfl An Dp va trd thanh
tdn giao chinh eua gidi quy tdc, dd'n the ki
XIII mdi thay the' b i n g P h i t g i i o Tieu
Thrfa (Thcravada). Nhrf v i y da cd tren
mrfdi the' ki Baiamdn giao tdn tai p h i t
trien d ngrfdi Khmer, nen anh hrfdng cua
Baiamdn giao khdng de bi phai md trong
ddi sd'ng tinh than cua ngrfdi Khmer Nam
Bd. Khi Phat giao Tieu Thrfa da phat trie'n
ben viing thi anh hfldng cua Baiamdn
giao van cd phan lrfu lai trong kie'n true
chua Khmer. Cu the la trfdng Linga va
Apsara van hieu hufu trong kie'n true chiia
thap vdi srf sang tao, tie'p nhan, hda nhap
nhuin nhuyen va each dieu,
"Tai chfla Beng San Rach, xa An Ninh,
huyen My Tuc, tinh Hau Giang ngrfdi ta
thay tren s i n nen chinh dicn cd ba Linga
lam bang thach cao cao 40cm, drfdng
kinh dau 30cm, drfdc dat vao ba ngdi
mieu nhd hinh vudng, mdi canh 60cm,
eao 1,3m d d a n g trrfdc hai cufa chinh
hrfdng ddng san chua. Nhrf vay, phai
Chang Linga la dai dien cho mpt vat linh
thieng dd'i vdi ngrfdi Khmer gan vdi tin
ngrfdng phdn thflc eho nen hp da dfla nd
vao thd t r o n g mio'u tron san nen chfla
ndi t r a n g trpng cua chinh dicn?"*'*'.
Tfl dd cho thay, vu nfl Apsara - mdt vu
nfl thien than cua Baiamdn giao hicn
hufu t r o n g kie'n trflc ehua t h a p Khmer la

Nghifin CLTU T6n giao. S62 - 2J)J2^
mdt lo dfldng nhien t r o n g sfl giao lrfu,
giao thoa van hda cua cdng ddng ngfldi
Khmor Nam Bd. Mot khia eanh bieu hien
quan t r p n g cua trie't li P h a t giao Tieu
Thrfa la hfldng thidn, trfl ac. Theo quan
niem cua ngfldi Khmor Nam Bd thi vu
nfl Apsara la mdt t h i n thien. Trong
t r a n g tri va t r a n h vc tren cae trfdng,
t r i n cua chua la v6 theo e i c srf tich, vl
du: sfl tich Thion a n h hflng ca
R a m a y a n a An Dp (Riem Kc): sfl tich
P h i t thoai vc eupc ddi cua dflc Phat tiit
luc s i n h r a de'n luc vao cdi Nie't Ban; hay
srf tich vfl nfl Apsara vdi s i c dep, tai
mua gidi, chinh phuc the' gidi thien
t h i n , the' gidi t r i n gian, ke ca gidi tu
hanh, non h i n h vu nfl Apsara drfdc ve
t r e n e i c bflc trfdng, c i c t r i n ciia nhftng
ngdi chua cd niiieu m i u sac rrfc rd,
drfdng net t i n h xao, t i n h mi thuat cao va
d nhflng vi tri q u a n trpng. Khdng nhiing
bflc vc d vi tri chinh dicn m a cdn drfdc
vc d n h a hdi, n h a t a n g cua chfla Khmer.
Vu nfl Apsara drfdc mieu ta la vu nii
thien t h i n x i n h dep tuyet vdi, dang Ifldn
bay, uyen chuydn, m u a dieu tien bay, voli
nhieu kieu, dang, tao h i n h dpp, hap dan
lam me say cdi Trdi. Vu nfl Apsara c6
nhflng d a n g dieu, tao h i n h g i n gui vdi
hinh mua vu nfl Kay No, phai ehang da
cd srf a n h hrfdng, hda quyen vu nit
Apsara (Baiamdn g i i o ) va vfl nfl Kay No
( P h i t g i i o Tieu Thfla). Ne'u cd thi dd ciing
la dieu tat yd'u, cd the xay r a trong tim
thflc cua cdng ddng ngrfdi Khmer khi tdn
tai hai tdn giao Baiamdn giao va Phit
g i a o Tieu Thrfa t r o n g tie'n t r i n h lich sif
3. Trudng Luu (chu bien).VVi/) hda ngirdi Kliiiat
viing ddng hdng sdng Cim Long... Sdd. tr. 325,


Le Ngoc Canh. Hinh mi'ia trong kien true.
hinh t h a n h phat trien tde ngrfdi va van
hda tdn giao cua ngrfdi Khmer Nam Bd.
3.7. Hinh mda Chdng (Yak)
Chang (Yak) la mdt hinh trfdng, mot
nhan vat t r o n g truyen thuye't t h i n thoai
va t r o n g nhieu linh vrfc van hpc nghe
thuat, cd net dac trrfng rieng biet, la dai
dien cho Irfc Irfdng ta, ic, phi nghia (loai
nhan vat phan dicn). Yak drfdc khac hoa
trong s i n k h a u Rd Bam, t r o n g dieu k h i c ,
kie'n true ludn cd srf bie'n doi hinh dang
r i t dac biet. C h i n g mot n h a n vat dfl tdn,
khi cd mdt diu, khi cd nhieu diu, r a n g
nanh d i i , nhpn, mat ldi, miii to, mat rat
hung drf. Quan ao ludn bd sat nhrf mdt
loai vd trfdng. Vdi tai n g h e eua eac nghe
nhan, dicn mao mdtip Chang drfdc khac
hoa rat ddc dao, the hien ban c h i t cua
nhan vat ta, ac. Cd le vi the' t r o n g kie'n
true thap Khmer, Yak drfdc k h i c hpa
ngay d cac mat cua thap, d vi tri quan
trpng cua thap.

57

Toan khd'i trfdng hinh mua Yak khde,
chac, cd p h i n h u n g dfl.
38. Hinh mua thien

thdn

Phd bie'n tron c i c mat cua kie'n true
thap Khmer thrfdng cd hinh mua thien
t h i n hinh khd'i, drfdc bd' tri can dd'i d hai
ben efla thap (tang mdt) hoac d t i n g hai
cua thap. Kie'n true thap thrfdng cd bd'n
mat, bd'n hrfdng Ddng, Tay, Nam, Bac,
mdi hrfdng cd hai hinh mua thien than
hrfdng thien, b i c ai, nhrf hda ddng tien
drfa phfl hd cho cae linh hon ngrfdi qua
cd' trong thap (cdt pi ehet day).
Mdtip dang the' miia cua thien than cd
gi dd g i n giii vdi dang the' tao hinh than
Siva eua Baiamdn giao drfdc each dieu cd
tinh nghe thuat mua kha dam net.

i mdt cua thap.

Mdtip tao hinh mda cd bam Mdt chan
lam tru, kieng gdt chan va khuyu, mdt
chan CO (gap gd'i) cd chan dudi trf nhien,
cac ngdn chan hrfdng xud'ng drfdi. Than
ngrfdi va dau nga theo hrfdng chan co.
Mpt tay ben phia chan cd gap khuyu tay,
cd tay ud'n, cac ngdn tay sat nhau de
hrfdng trrfdc ngrfc, cac ngdn tay hrfdng
len tren. Tay cdn lai gid len cao theo
hinh day cung, khuyu tay hdi gap, cd tay
cud'n, cac ngdn tay sat nhau, cac ngdn tay
hrfdng n g a n g diu, long ban tay hrfdng
len tren.

Hinh mua Chang (Yak) dfldc dap
thanh khd'i, tao h i n h nhfl vo trfdng canh
girf cufa thap. Mdtip chu dao cua tao hinh
' miia Yak la hai chan khuyu, hai dau gd'i
' hrfdng hai ben (the' tin); hai tay gap, mdt
tay thi'p mpt tay cao, nhrf c i m rapt binh
khi drfa r a phia trrfde ngrfc, the' ngrfdi
r|thang; t r a n g phuc q u i n ao bd sat ngrfdi;
dau ddi mfl n h p n theo hinh chdp nhpn.

Hinh mua thien t h i n ben kia tao the'
miia ngrfdc lai (dd'i ximg), mot hinh mua
c h i n tru la chan phai, mdt hinh mua
chan tru la chan trai. Hinh mua thien
t h i n ludn d the' can dd'i. Dd la mdt quy
rfdc tao hinh mua bat budc, ludn ngrfdc
nhau. Cd the dd la quy luat tham mi
t r o n g quan niem, trf duy cau true trong
nghe thuat kieh true chua, thap ndi

Thap Khmer thfldng ca'u true ba tang,
t i n g mdt rdng, ldn; t i n g hai nhd hdn
tang mdt; t i n g ba nhd hdn t i n g hai;
dinh cua t h a p tao t h a n h h i n h tam giac
(chdp ndn) nhieu ldp. Tren dinh cac thap
cua chfla thrfdng cd trfdng khd'i Linga.
ffinh mua Yak d vi tri hai ben d t a n g


Nghien CLTU T6n giao. Si)2 - 2012^

58
rieng. t r o n g c i u true n g h e t h u i t
Chung cua ngrfdi Khmer Nam Bd.
3.9. Hinh ngddi cdu nguyen

ndi

trong kie'n

trite nhd thidu
Pho bie'n t r o n g cdng ddng ngrfdi theo
dao P h i t Tieu Thfla, khi qua ddi deu l i
hda tang (drfa vao nha thieu). Nha thifiu
drfdc ciu true kha cdng phu, dpc d i o vdi
nhieu kieu d i n g , hoa van hpa tie't. trong
dd cd hinh ngrfdi drfdc bd' tri d phia tren
cua nha hda thieu. Tao hinh ngrfdi dd cd
the la tfldng Phat, eflng cd the la tfldng
Phat mua khue c i u nguyen, cd ye'u td'
mua, cd lien quan tdi mua ifla quanh n h a
thieu nhrf mdt tuc 16 cua hda t i n g .
Trfdng Phat ngdi bat chan chrf ngfl
trong k h u n g la de drfdc each dipu. Mdt
tay budng xudi d the' trf nhien d phia
trrfdc, mdt tay nhfl c i m mdt bd dud'c, nhrf
tung kinh, nhrf mua khflc c i u nguyen cho
linh hdn ngrfdi q u i cd' drfdc tinh lae vc
ndi vinh hang.
3.10. Hinh mda vO nd trong nhac cu
Trong nhieu linh vrfc sinh hoat van
hda chfla eiing nhrf tin ngrfdng, phong
tue, tap quan thfldng cd sfl tham gia eua
he thd'ng nhac cu Khmer. Trong dd quan
trpng la eac nhac cu gd, nhrf dan Runet
ck, Runet thung, Kdng thon, Runet dek
Cic nhac cu nay thrfdng cau tao theo
hinh thuyen, nen edn gpi la dan thuyen.
Dac biet hai d i u g i i dd dan thuyen
thfldng cd cham k h i c hinh vu nfl va tao
hinh, tao dang, t r a n g phuc miia theo
phong each dan tdc.

Nghe thuat mua (hinh mfla) trong
chfla t h a p cua ngfldi Khmer d vflng ddng
bang sdng Cihi Long l i mpt bieu hien dpc
dao t r o n g nghe thuat kie'n true Khmer
Nam Bd. Nd h i m chfla nhiing gia tri,
nhiing y nghia, nhiing trf duy sang tao
va quan nipm t h i m mi cua ngrfdi Khmer
Nam Bp t r o n g kie'n true chua t h i p , trong
van hda tdn giao.
Chiia, thap la bieu tfldng, dac trrfng cua
Phat g i i o Tieu Thfla, tdn tai, phat trien
r i t sdm d cdng ddng ngrfdi Khmer Nam
Bd. Khoang the ki I sau Cdng nguyen,
gidi quy tdc Khmer da theo Baiamdn giao
du n h a p tfl An Dp va trd t h i n h tdn giao
quan trpng t r o n g ddi sdng van hda ton
giao cua ho. Ciing thdi, hoac trfldc dd din
ngheo ngrfdi Khmer Nam Bp theo Ph4t
giao Tieu Thura, bdi P h i t giao Tieu Thfla
cd nhiing not trfcftig ddng g i n giii vdi tin
ngrfdng d i n gian nhfl tuc thd than Arik,
t h i n Neakta. Mai de'n the ki XIII Phat
giao Tieu ThiJfa mdi phat trien manh me,
ben vflng t r o n g toan cdng ddng ngfldi
Khmer va trd thanh tdn giao chinh thong
eiia cdng ddng ngrfdi Khmer d ddng bang
sdng Cufu Long Nam Bd.
Tuy Baiamdn giao da d i n d i n suy tan,
nhrfng a n h hrfdng cua Baiamdn giao con
s i u d i m t r o n g tam thrfc, tinh cam cua
ngrfdi Khmer Nam Bd. Bdi vay trong
n g h e thuat kie'n true chua thap Khmer
v i n cdn bdng d a n g cua Baiamdn gi^Nhrf vay, du hflu thrfc h a y vd thflc da co
srf hda nhap, giao thoa gifla Baiamdn
giao va Phat giao Tieu Thrfa tdn tai
t r o n g kie'n true chua, t h i p Khmer.

4. Ke't luan
4.1. Ton giao

Dieu n a y thay rd h i n h ngrfdi mua
t r o n g kie'n true chfla thap hien hiiu troi^


Le Ngoc Canh. Hinh mua trong kieh tnic.
ddi sdng van hda, tdn giao cua cdng
ddng. Dd la h i n h mua vu nfl Aprasa,
chim t h i n Garuda, chim t h i n Ma Ha
Krut va ca Linga bieu trfdng linh thieng
cua Baiamdn giao. Dd la srf hdn dung cua
van hda tdn giao cung tdn tai trong sinh
hoat van hda cua edng ddng ngrfdi
Khmer Nam Bd, ma kie'n true chua thap
la mdt bieu hien.
4J3. Chua thdp
Ndi tdi Phat giao Tieu Thiia khdng the
khdng ndi tdi chua thap, nd cd vai trd
dac biet quan t r p n g t r o n g ddi sd'ng van
hda tinh t h i n cua cdng ddng ngrfdi
Khmer. Phd bie'n d cac phum sdc Khmer
deu cd mpt ngdi chfla. Theo thd'ng kc
chift, d i y du, hien cae phum sdc d Dong
bang sdng Cufu Long cd 600 ngdi chua.
Chua drfdc xay drfng tren mdt khudn
vien rdng ldn, cd nhflng h a n g cay eao
vflt va vdi nhieu ngdi nha vdi nhflng
cdng nang khac nhau.
Chua la t r u n g tam sinh hoat van hda
tdn giao, sinh hoat van hda cdng ddng,
ndi dien r a le, hdi, p h o n g tuc, tap quan,
tin ngrfdng, van hda, xa hpi va nghe
thuat. Chiia la ndi gfli gam niem tin, rfdc
vpng, tam linh cua con ngfldi va gan bd
vdi vdng ddi ngrfdi, sinh, iao, benh, trf.
Chiia l i bieu trfdng linh thieng cua P h i t
giao Tieu Thrfa.

4.3. Nghe thudt mua (hinh miia)
kie'n trdc chiia thap

59
trong

Nghe thuat miia (hinh mua) la mdt dac
trrfng, ddc dao trong kie'n true chiia thap
Khmer d ddng bang sdng Cflu Long. Nghe
thuat mua trd thanh mdt thanh td' trong
nghe thuat kie'n true chua thap Phat giao,
khdng the thio'u vang. Phd bie'n trong kie'n
true chua thap bao gid cung ed hinh miia
vdi cac dang, the', tao hinh khac nhau.
Nhrfng tdng the cd mdtip chii dao la vu nft
l i chim than, la t h i n vdi nhiing hinh khd'i
ndi va vo tren cac trfdng, tran nha chua va
dap ndi tren cac thap.
Qua phan khao cflrf tren cho thay md'i
quan he gifta tdn giao, kie'n true chua thap
va nghp thuat mfla (hinh mua) la md'i quan
he hflu cd, trong chinh the thd'ng nhat,
khdng the chia cit. Chung la net dac trrfng
van hda cua cdng ddng ngrfdi Khmer d
ddng bang sdng Cufu Long. Md'i quan he ay
drfdc quy nap vao sd dd drfdi day, thay cho
ldi ke't cua bai vie't nay.



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