SESSION 1. COMMUNICATING
Dr. Nguyen Thi Hoang Lien
THE CONCEPT OF RISK IN
Risk is simply seen as the possibility of suffering
harm (eg., crossing a busy intersection,
breathing polluted air, eating certain foods,
undergoing medical tests, playing sports, etc.).
TWO DIMENSIONS OF RISK
TWO CATEGORIES OF RISK
PERCEPTION OF RISK
• Risk means different things to different
• People tend to ignore or discount discrete,
familiar, voluntary, and low-probability risks;
• Feelings of control and opportunities for
participation influence evaluations of the
acceptability of risk;
• People evaluate risk as members of a
• Trust is an important influence on risk
• Risk communication is an intentional transfer
of information designed to respond to public
concerns or public needs related to real or
• Risk communication is described as any public
or private communication that informs
individuals about the existence, nature, form,
severity, or acceptability of risks.
Plough and Krimsky, 1990
• Risk communication is an interactive process
of exchange of information and opinion among
individuals, groups, and institutions.
• Risk communication involves multiple
messages about the nature of risk and other
messages, not strictly about risk, that express
concerns, opinions, or reactions to risk
messages or to legal and institutional
arrangements for risk management.
The National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.,
THE RISK COMMUNICATION PROCESS
SESSION 2. ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIATION
Dr. Nguyen Thi Hoang Lien
WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION
EDR consists of a set of techniques, processes,
and roles that enable parties to a dispute to
reach agreement with the help of a neutral third
party known as a mediator.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EDR PROCESS
• Voluntary participation by the parties involved
in the dispute;
• Direct or ‘face-to-face’ group interaction
among the representatives of these parties; and
• Mutual agreement or consensus decisions
among the parties on the process to be used
and any settlement that may emerge.
Crowfoot and Wondolleck (1990)
THE SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT
•Difference in values and worldviews;
• Conflicting interests; and
• Technical uncertainty.
What EDR offers is help in trying to keep these
conflicts manageable, proportionate, and
ultimately resolvable through creative solutions.
WHEN EDR IS MOST LIKELY TO SUCCEED
• There are a manageable number of identifiable
• There are no major issues that involve
• The core dispute raises no fundamental value
or symbolic issues;
• The parties are able to achieve a level of trust
and a sense of shared purpose;
• There exists a rough parity in relative power
among the participants.
STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES FOR
• Separate the people from the problem;
• Focus on interests, not positions;
• Generate a wide variety of options for
• Insist that the results be based on objective