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Environment management E363 lecture 11 working with the public

E363
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
LECTURE 11 – WORKING WITH
THE PUBLIC
Dr. Nguyen Thi Hoang Lien
nguyenthihoanglien@hus.edu.vn

1


WHAT IS A STAKEHOLDER?
The terms “stakeholder” or “interest group”
refer to individuals or groups with a manifest
interest or “stake” in management outcomes
Dale and Lane, 1994
The concept of a stakeholder acts to ‘capture’
both articulate and the silent, the powerful and
the powerless, those within a territorial political
community, and those beyond its boundaries
Healy, 1997
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WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF
STAKEHOLDERS?
• Anyone who is affected, negatively or
positively, by or affects a particular issue;
• Anyone who experiences a level of utility or
welfare from a resource;
• Any group of people, organized or
unorganized, who share a common interest or
stake in a particular issue or system
Guijt, 1997
3


THE NEED FOR STAKEHOLDER
IDENTIFICATION & ANALYSIS
• Determining who are stakeholders in a
particular issue or project;
• Understanding
internal
dynamics
of
stakeholders;
• Understanding role or interest of stakeholders;
• Determining relationships of stakeholders to
other actors;
• Determining how stakeholders might best
participate in developing management
process.

4


STAKEHOLDER IDENTIFICATION &
ANALYSIS APPROACHES
• Different stakeholders have different levels of
power, interests and different resources (the WB,
1996).
• Participatory processes are needed to ‘level the

playing field’ and allow different stakeholders to
interact on an equitable basis (Low Choy, McKillop
& Davies, 2001).
The most suitable model is one that best
addresses the goals, values and capabilities of the
case.
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STAKEHOLDER IDENTIFICATION &
ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES
• To identify the people and groups who have a ‘stake’
in an issue or area and to define ‘key communities of
concern’ (Low Choy & Davies, 2001);
• To determine the views, interests, issues of concern,
characteristics and circumstances of the different
players in community participation (Low Choy & Davies,
2001);
• To gain a deeper understanding of the relationships
between stakeholders, a clearer picture of who needs to
be directly involved and what they need to be able to
participate effectively (Guijt, 1997);
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• To identify the most effective processes for involving
different types of stakeholders (Low Choy & Davies,
2001);
• To make clearly apparent the timing of participatory
activities and the resources available (Low Choy & Davies,
2001);
• To ensure that community participation includes people
or groups who are representative of the range of
interests, issues, geographical areas, industries, land
uses, land types, communities and types of people (WB,
1996);
• To ensure the legitimacy of stakeholders and of
participatory processes in the eyes of all stakeholders to
allow for development of new ideas, insights, and
consensus for action (ICLEI, 1996).
7


Determining who to involve is no easy task, as it
is often difficult to identify all stakeholders,
particularly when there are multiple interests at
stake and complex issues to address
(Low Choy, Mc Killop & Davies, 2001)

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