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Environmental management E363 lecture 5 waste

E363 –
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
LECTURE 5 - WASTE
Dr. Nguyen Thi Hoang Lien
nguyenthihoanglien@hus.edu.vn


DEFINITIONS OF WASTE
• "Substances or objects which are disposed off
or are intended to be disposed off or are
required to be disposed off by the provisions of
international law" (Basel Convention)
• “Waste is defined as an object the holder
discards, intends to discard or is required to
discard.” (European Union)


• "Wastes are materials that are not prime
products (that is products produced for the
market) for which the generator has no
further use in terms of his/her own purposes

of production, transformation or consumption,
and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes
may be generated during the extraction of raw
materials, the processing of raw materials into
intermediate and final products, the
consumption of final products, and other
human activities. Residuals recycled or reused
at the place of generation are excluded.“
(United Nations Statistics Division – UNSD)


WASTE TYPES
• Municipal Waste includes household waste,
commercial waste, demolition waste
• Hazardous Waste includes Industrial waste
• Bio-medical Waste includes clinical waste
• Special hazardous waste includes radioactive
waste, Explosives waste, E-waste


SOLID WASTE
• Municipal waste – comprised of residential,
commercial and market wastes;
• ƒIndustrial waste – includes hazardous waste from
the processing activities of factories and other
manufacturing units; clinical wastes from hospitals
and clinics; sewage and sludge from municipal
sewer systems; construction and demolition waste;
• ƒAgricultural waste – comprised of animal (pigs,
cows and buffaloes) manure from the farmers'
houses, crop residues (mainly from coffee, rubber,
tobacco and coconut) and residues of agrochemicals.


HAZADOUS WASTE

A hazardous waste is waste that poses
substantial or potential threats to public
health or the environment:
1. Flammable wastes can create fires under

certain conditions, are spontaneously
combustible, or have a flash point less than
60 °C (140 °F)
2. Toxic wastes are those containing
concentrations of certain substances in
excess of regulatory thresholds which are
expected to cause injury or illness to human
health or the environment.


3. Reactive wastes are unstable under
"normal" conditions. They can cause
explosions, toxic fumes, gases, or vapors
when heated, compressed, or mixed with
water. Examples include lithium-sulfur
batteries and explosives.
4. Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH
less than or equal to 2, or greater than or
equal to 12.5) that are capable of corroding
metal containers, such as storage tanks,
drums, and barrels. Battery acid is an
example.


HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE (HHW)
HHW (also referred to as domestic hazardous
waste) is waste that is generated from
residential households. HHW only applies to
wastes that are the result of the use of
materials that are labeled for and sold for
"home use“:
•Paints and solvents
•Automotive wastes (used motor oil,
antifreeze, etc.)
•Pesticides
(insecticides,
herbicides,
fungicides, etc.)


• Mercury-containing wastes (thermometers, switches,
fluorescent lightning, etc.)
• Electronics (computers, televisions, cell phones)
• Aerosols / Propane cylinders
• Caustics / Cleaning agents
• Refrigerant-containing appliances
• Some specialty batteries (e.g. lithium, nickel cadmium,
or button cell batteries)
• Ammunition
• Radioactive waste (some home smoke detectors are
classified as radioactive waste because they contain
very small amounts of a radioactive isotope of
americium).


TRACKED WASTES WOMB TO TOMB
• Generation
• Transportation
• Disposal


SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
• Land-filling
• Composting
• Incinerating
• Recycling
• Reuse


FINAL DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
• Recycling: e.g., lead-acid batteries, electronic circuits
boards
• Portland cement: cement can treat a range of
hazardous wastes by improving physical characteristics
and decreasing the toxicity and transmission of
contaminants.
• Neutralization: e.g., pH adjustment
• Incineration, destruction and waste-to-energy:
• Hazardous waste landfill (sequestering, isolation, etc.)
• Pyrolysis: preferable to the destruction of concentrated
organic waste types, including PCBs, pesticides and
other persistent organic pollutants.


LAW ON ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION 2005
Chapter 8- Waste Management
Section 1- General provisions on waste
management
Article 66.- Waste management responsibilities
Article 67.- Collection and disposal of expired
and discarded products
Article 68.- Recycling of wastes
Article 69.- Waste management responsibilities
of People’s Committees at all levels


Section 2- Hazardous waste management
Article 70.- Compilation of records, registration, grant
of permits and code numbers for hazardous waste
management
Article 71.- Sorting, collection and temporary storage of
hazardous wastes
Article 72.- Transport of hazardous wastes
Article 73.- Treatment of hazardous wastes
Article 74.- Hazardous waste treatment establishments
Article 75.- Hazardous waste burial sites
Article 76.- Planning of collection, treatment and burial
of hazardous wastes


Section 3- Management of ordinary solid wastes
Article 77.- Classification of ordinary solid
wastes
Article 78.- Collection, transport of ordinary
solid wastes
Article 79.- Ordinary solid waste recycling and
destruction establishments, ordinary solid waste
burial sites
Article 80.- Planning on collection, recycling,
destruction and burial of ordinary solid wastes


REGULATIONS
• Decision No. 155/1999/QD-TTg: Promulgating
the regulation on management of hazardous
wastes
• Decision No. 12/2006/QD-BTNMT: List of
scraps permitted for import as secondary
production materials
• Decision
No.
15/2006/QD-BTNMT:
Promulgating the list of refrigerating
equipment using CFC which are banned from
import


• Decision No. 23/2006/QD-BTNMT: List of
hazardous wastes
• Circular No. 12/2006/TT-BTNMT: Guiding
hazardous waste management, dossiers
compilation, registration, licensing and code
numbers.
• Joint circular No. 02/2007/TTLT-BCT-BTNMT:
Guiding the implementation of Article 43 of
the Law on Environmental Protection
regarding criteria for and conditions on the
import of scraps


• Decree No. 59/2007/ND-CP on solid waste
management
• Decree No. 174/2007/ND-CP on the
environmental charge for solid waste
• QCVN 07:2009/BTNMT: National technical
regulation on hazardous waste thresholds
• Circular No. 08/2009/TT-BTNMT providing for
the
environmental
management
and
protection of economic zones, hi-tech parks,
industrial parks and industrial complexes



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