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Phân biệt một số từ gây nhầm lẫn trong tiếng anh

1.

Diễn tả số lượng
Meaning

+ countable N

Rất nhiều

Nhiều

+ uncountable N

A large number of

A good/ great deal/
amount of

Quite a few

Quite a little


A number of

A lot of/ lots of

A lot of/ lots of

Much

Many
Một vài, một ít (đủ để A few
làm gì)
Some

A little

Rất ít, hầu như không (very) few

(very) little

2.

Few

Tên của một nhóm
a.

b.

c.

Động vật
-

a pack of dogs/wolves

-

a school of fish


-

a flock/flight of birds

-

a flock of sheep/goats

-

a swarm of insects/bees

-

a herd of cattle/deer/elephants/pigs

-

a pride of lions

-

a cloud of flies

Người
-

a group of ….

-

a gang of thieves

-

a company of actors

Vật
-

A fleets of ships


3.

-

A bunch of keys/bananas/flowers/grapes

-

A flight of aeroplanes/steps

-

A constellation of stars

Những từ kết thúc bằng –ic và –ical
a.

b.
classic
economic
electric

Nghĩa không khác nhau
-

Geographic(al)

-

Dynamic(al)

-

Fanatic(al)

-

Poetic(al)

-

Strategic(al)

-

Periodic(al)

-

Cynic(al)

-

Arthmetic(al)

-

Geometric(al)

-

Symmetric(al)

Nghĩa khác nhau
: best quality, elegant
: connected with
economy
: use/produce
electricity

economical
electrical

historic : important
4.

classical

: belongs to the past
: using no more money
than necessary, frugal
: connected with
electricity

historical : connected with the past

Affect – effect
N
Affect

[‘æfekt]

V
[ə'fekt]

emotion which may
influence
behaviorto make a difference to
(used in psychology


only)

or influence something
Your opinion will not
affect my decision.

[i'fekt]
Effect

5.

a
result
consequence

[i'fekt]
or

ato achieve or produce

They hope to effect a
Does TV have a effect reconciliation.
on the bahaviors of
young children?

Most – almost – mostly
a.

Khác nhau về nghĩa
Adv

Determiner

Pronoun

-

Most

To the greatest degree: - The largest in - Largest
in
nhất
number or amount: number or amount.
What did you enjoy (the) nhiều nhất
Who ate the most?
most?
He got (the) most - More than half of
- Very,
extremely, votes.
somebody/
completely: rất, cực kì
- More than half something; almost
somebody/ all of somebody/
It was most kind of you to of
something; almost something.
meet me.
all of somebody/ Most of the people
something: hầu hết I
had
invited
I like
vegatable.

Almost Not quite ( nearly): gần như
(sắp đến mức tuyệt đối)
I like almost all of them.
The story is almost certainly
false.

most

turned up.


They’ll eat almost anything.
Their house
opposite ours.

Mostly

is

almost

Mainly, generally: thường,
hầu như, gần như (phần lớn)
His book is mostly useless.
We’re mostly out on Sunday.

b.
-

Most + V/ / Adj/ (of the) pluN/ of pronouns

-

Mostly + adj

6.

Khác nhau về cấu trúc

Almost + V/ Adj/ certain words (any, anything, anyone, no,
nobody, nothing, all, every, everybody)

Assure – ensure – insure – reassure
-

Assure:
·

cam đoan, khẳng định chắc chắn. She’s
perfectly safe. I can assure you.

·

đảm bảo. Victory would assure a place in the
finals.

·

7.

= ensure (BrE)/ insure (AmE)/ guarantee

-

Insure against/for something: mua bảo hiểm

-

Reassure somebody that… / about something: trấn an

Worthless – valueless – priceless – valuable – invaluable
Thứ tự giá trị giảm dần:
Priceless (vô giá) invaluable (rất có giá trị, rất có ích) > valuable
(có giá trị) > valueless = worthless (vô giá trị)

8.

Each – Every
Position

Followed by…

Before After a + sing V + plu V
a
pluN/pro

Ex


singN
Each

ü

ü

ü
Every

Each student has been
given his ỏ her own
email address.

ü

ü
ü

They each have their
own email address
Every student is given
an email address

Each (one) of
+ plu N/pro + sing V
Every one of
9.

Some certain pairs of words:

Accept (v): chấp nhận
All together: cùng nhau

Except (prep): ngoại trừ (= apart
from)
Altogether: tổng cộng

Let’s sing all together

We have invited 50 people
altogether

Disinterested (adj): khách quan

Uninterested (adj): không hứng
thú. >< interested

Each other: used with 2 people/
things

One another: used with

Sensible (adj): nhạy bén, sắc sảo

Sensitive (adj): nhạy cảm

Childlike (adj): giống trẻ con

Childish (adj): trẻ con

Lie (intransitive V):

Lay (transitive V):

3


-

Nằm (lie – lay – lain)
Nói dối (lie – lied –
lied)

Principle (n) a rule, a law that
something is based on (nguyên
tắc)
ð in principle (idm):
-

Về nguyên tắc, về
nguyên lí

-

-

Đặt (lay – laid – laid)

Principal
-

(n): hiệu trưởng
(adj): chính, quan trọng (=
important, main)

Nói chung = in general

Unable (adj) + to V: không đủ
khả năng, không thể làm gì

Disable (adj): khuyết tật (
handicapped)

Deadly
-

(adv):
vô cùng, cực kì (=
extremely)
hoàn toàn (=completely)

-

Deathly (adv/adj): giống như chết,
có liên quan đến cái chết

(adj): gây chết người (=
lethal)

Various (adj): đa dạng, phong
phú ( diverse)

Variable (adj): có thể thay đổi (
fluctuating) >< invariable

Efficient (adj): có hiệu quả, không
Effective (adj): có tác dụng, giải
lãng phí thời gian, năng lượng ><
quyết được vấn đề >< ineffective
inefficient
Lend (v): cho mượn

Borrow (v): mượn

Could you lend me some money? Can I borrow your pen?
Stationary (adj): tĩnh, không di
chuyển

Stationery (n): văn phòng phẩm


Chance (n)
-

Khả năng xảy ra (a
possibility of something
happening)

-

Cơ hội

-

Sự tình cờ

Opportunity (n) = chance: cơ hội



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