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Latest Developments on Plastics Recycling Technologies in Japan

Contents
1. Trend of waste plastic recycling in Japan
2. Containers and Packaging Recycling Law (CPRL)
3. Recycling technologies
3.1 Existing technologies for CPRL

Latest Developments on Plastics Recycling
Technologies in Japan

Blast furnace reducing agent, Coke oven fuel, Gasification, Liquefaction

3.2 Expecting technologies for CPRL
RPF

3.3 New recycling technologies and systems
(1)Producing naphtha rich oil by catalyst cracking using spent FCC
August 30 2011 in Bangkok

catalyst
(2)Highly efficient recycling technology for waste multilayer films
(3)Mechanical Recycling Technology for Waste PVC wall covering

based on High-speed Centrifugal Beating Technology

Yamawaki Takashi

Plastic Waste Management Institute
1

1. Trend of waste plastics recycling in Japan
Mechanical Recycling

Import

Resin
Production
11,210

Domestic
Consumption
8,430

Post-use
Discharge
8,460

Processing
Waste
480

Total
Discharge
9 120
9,120

Production
Waste
180

Domestic
Waste
4,440


2,000(22%)
Liquefaction,
Gasification,
Blast furnace

80

320(4%)

75

Densified-refuse
derived fuel

70

Reclaimed
Products
540

Industrial
Waste
4,680

Ut iliza tion ra t e(%)

420(5%)

Unit:1000t

Incineration with
power generation

3,280(36%)
Incineration with heat
utilization facility

1,160(13%)
Unutilized:2,710(21%)

65
60
55
50

Incineration without
power generation or heat
utilization facility

45

1,070(12%)
Landfilling

40

880(10%)

1999

2000

Source : Plastic Waste Management Institute

Figure-1 Flowchart of Plastic Products, Waste, and Recycling(2009)

2

Plastic utilization rate increased steadily reaching
79%(2009) of total plastic waste discharge.

Utilized:7,230(79%)
Export

(4)Tray
Tray--to
to--Tray recycling by “FPCO system”
(5)Advanced separation technology of shredded plastic mixture from
WEEE
(6)PET bottle to PET bottle by using mechanical process

3

Figure-2

2001

2002

2003
2004
Calender year

2005

2006

2007

2008
4

1


2. Containers and Packaging Recycling Law (CPRL)

Figure-4
Actual performance related to C&P plastics other than PET bottles

Designated
manufactures/users

Business entities utilizing
recycled products

Payment of
recycling
costs
The Japan C&P

Recycling Association
Supply

Consumers

Declaration for
amount of sorting
plastic waste

Payment of
recycling costs
Bidding
price

Supply
pp y

Recyclers

Municipalities
Sorted
collection
Sorted discharge

Transportation and recycling
of “items to meet sorting criteria”

Figure-3

5

6

Figure-6

Figure-5

Large Scaled Chemical Recycling Facilities

Trends in bidding for the various recycling methods for
C&P plastics other than PET bottles

Nihon Steel (Muroran)
Coke Oven: 20,000t

16 Facilities:
Monomer 1
Blast furnace 3
Coke oven 6
Gasification 5
Liquefaction 1
(Total 500 Kt/y)

(complied with C&P recycling law, 2012)

Mogami kiko (Shinjo)
Liquefaction: 1,000t
Orix environmental resources
Gasification : 30,000t (Yorii)

JFE Steel (Chiba)
Gasification: 20,000t
Nippon Steel (Kimitsu)
Coke Oven: 50,000t

JFE Steel (Fukuyama)
Blast furnace/Coke Oven : 40,000t

JFE Steel (Kawasaki)
40,000t/30,000t
Blast furnace/Coke Oven

Kyoei cycle(Onoda)
Gasification: 25,000t
Nihon Steel (Yahata)
Coke Oven: 20,000t

Showa Denko(Kawasaki)
Gasification: 64,000t

Nihon Steel (Oita)
Cokes Oven: 25,000t
7

Mizushima ecoworks (Mizushama)
Gasification : 51,000t

PET Reverse (Kawasaki)
Monomer B to B: 27,500t
Kobe Steel (Kakogawa)
Blast furnace: 10,000t

Nihon Steel (Nagoya)
Coke Oven: 50,000t

8

2


3. Recycling technologies

(2)The flow seat of utilization for coke oven fuels

3.1 Existing recycling technologies for CPRL
(1)The flow seat of utilization for blast furnace reducing agents
Fe2O3+CH→Fe+CO2
+H2O

9

Figure-7

Source: Nippon Steel Co.

10

(3) The flow seat of utilization for gasification

Carbonization room

Figure-9

Figure-8

Source: JFE Steel Co.

Source: Nippon Steel Co.

11

Figure-10

Source: Ube Industries Ltd.

12

3


3.2 Expecting recycling technology for CPRL

(4)The flow seat of utilization for liquefaction

Source: Sapporo Plastic Recycling
Last year, this plant was closed.

Figure-11

13

Figure-14 Comparison of Liquefaction process

3.3 New recycling technologies

[existing cracking]

(1) Liquefaction by Catalyst Cracking using Spent FCC Catalyst

melting
dechlorination

pretreatment
Waste Plastic, Spent Catalyst,
Slaked Lime
Fixed

catalytic cracking

product

exhaust gas treatment

Fixed

Coole
r

[this catalytic cracking]

Fuel gas

pretreatment

product

catalytic cracking
vent

Heater

waste plastic
condenser

Oil/Gas Separator

Fuel
Heating
Furnace

feeder
Waste Catalyst

breaker

reflux

HCl gas

feeder
product oil

cracker

Residual
Substance

Source: The University of Kitakyusyu
15

vent

condenser
neutralization

Dechlorination
Agent

Figure-13

cracking

Spent
Catalyst
Rotational Dram

Air

14

Figure-12

cracker

Reduction
melting
dechlorination
residue

air-heating furnace

air-heating furnace
heavy oil

16 oil
cracked

4


WCCP Cracking (Bench Plant)

Results of PE Degradation using spent FCC Catalyst
Total outlet flow [wt%]

cooler

<Reaction Condition>

120

PE
425℃
PE-FCC
420℃

100
80

Temperature:420~480Ԩ
Agitation:2~5rpm
Reactor:300φ×1200L
Feed:2~20kg/hr
WCCP: waste container and
packaging plastic
<Chlorine>

60
40
20
0
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

Flow time [min]

11.5

1~2

45.0

4000
3000
2000
39

210
4

176
47
6

Figure-16-1

17
17

<Demonstration Plant>

Capacity : 80kg/h

47.6

41.5

46.0

50.1

3.9

18.3

39.9

5.3

43.0

36.4

52.8

58.1

40.9

8

47
12

13

189

128
20

1

Number of run [-]
Start up feed Ca(OH)2

55.8
0.3

0.6

16

9.1
40.8

Heavy oil
Diesel
Naphtha

Ca(OH)2

1000
0

3.8

8.1

5.8

4047

Fig15-2:Distribution of carbon number of products

DEMONSTRATION PLANT
OF WASTE PLASTIC CRACKING

<Product Oil>

5000

1

Dr
y

Aromatic

R esidua l C hlorine[ppm ]

0

oi
l

i-Paraffin

co
ke

22.5

de
se
l

30

ga
s

Oreffin

Used catalyst

he
av
y

11.0

Free catalyst

LP
G

60

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Used Catalyst

Na
ph
th
a

Used
catalyst [wt%]

Percentage[wt%]

n-Paraffin

Free catalyzed

Ke
ro
se
ne

Fig15-1:On
Fig15
1:On the relationship between
outlet flow and flow time
Table1:Distribution ratio of products
Free
catalyst [wt%]

hopper

cracker

Ca(OH)2:50vol%

6

40.7
0.5

8

12

Number of run [-]
Figure-16-2

0.3

0.1
13

49.8

0.2
16

LPG

0.2
20

Ca(OH)2

Start up feed Ca(OH)2

18

(2) Introduction of development of highly efficient
recycling technology for multilayer films
Background :

Feed : C&P Home waste, Recycles of home electronics, ASR

¾What is the multilayer film?
The composite film which laminates PET, PA as the functional layer to give gas
barrier property, pinhole resistant, and so on and PE, PP as the sealant layer.

Figure-17<Flow of Demonstration Plant>

¾Situation of waste treatment of the multilayer film

大気放出

chain block
A001電動チェーンブロック

Most of multilayer films have been being disposed of (incineration, or
landfill), as these cannot be recycled to materials with required strength.
The mill ends of these multilayer films of 15,000 t/month (estimate value) are
discharged from printing factories in Japan.

S002
排気筒

原料
feed

blower
B004排ガス誘引ブロワ

V001
材料受入ホッパ

hopper
V002

feeder
投入ホッパ

廃水(産廃)
Waste
water
H001分解油冷却器
oil cooler

R001
プラスチック液化装置

残渣排出
(産廃)

Objective :

B001
blower
生成ガスブロワ

B003希釈空気ブロワ
air blower

¾ Utilization of these multilayer films as recycled material by commpatibilization
technology of different kinds of plastics.
¾ Converting to economically advantageous sheet by achieving both compatibilization and molding to sheets from shredded flakes of mill end of multilayer films.

B002燃焼空気ブロワ
air blower

cracker

waste
catalyst

<Cracker>
F001熱風発生炉

T004
水封タンク

LPG
(supplement)
LPG(補助燃料)

separator

T003払出しタンク
T002
分解油タンク

product oil

生成油(産廃)
P001分解油ポンプ

P002払出しポンプ

19
19

20

5


Conventional process

Compatibilizer

shredding

Multilayer film

Figure-19 Effect of compatibilization

Flake

Modification
and Kneading

Pellet

Pellet

Sh t extruding
Sheet
t di

Sh t
Sheet

New process

SPE90A/JPP90A=75/25
Without compatibilizer
Tensile strength=10MPa
Elongation=10%

Two steps

Compatibilizer

shredding

Multilayer film

SPE90A/JPP90A=75/25
With 5% of compatibilizer
Tensile strength=10MPa
Elongation=300%
Flake

Modification, Kneading
and Sheet extruding

Sheet

Direct sheet extrusion

Figure-18 Comparison between the conventional process and the
new process

21

Direct sheet extrusion system

22

The sheet which satisfies the following point, can be extruded directly
with using shredded flake of multilayer film.

Big Tank Feeder System

Acceptable range of wall thickness ‫ أ‬10%
Tensile strength ‫ ؤ‬10MPa(MD、TD)
Fish eye or Foreign matter : Unidentified

Compatibilizer Slot
Gear Pump
T-Die

Figure-21 Target of direct sheet extrusion

First extruder

: Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder equipped Screen Changer,
Screw Diameter 105mm
Second extruder : Single Screw Extruder equipped Screen Changer and
Gear Pump, Screw Diameter 100mm, L/D=28

Figure-20 Outline of direct sheet extrusion system

23

Flake of multilayer film

Outlet of first extruder

Condition of sheet extrusion

Figure-22 Situation of direct sheet extrusion

24

6


(3) Development of Mechanical Recycling Technology for Waste PVC wall
covering based on High-speed Centrifugal Beating Technology

Application example
Concrete panel
500 concrete panels (plywood covered by the sheet) are made for trial purposes,
and the performance assessment in the site is under way.

PVC wall covering
Production

180 thousand tons

PVC
32%

rear:
pulp

Advantage : easy removable, recyclable use

Plasti
cizer
16%

front:resin

C CO3
CaCO

29%

PULP
21%

Figure-23 Construction site

25

Waste from 
construction

Production 
waste

Figure-24 Plywood covered by sheet

Waste

Figure-25

Waste from 
dismantling

100 thousand tons

Other
2%
26
26

Structure of High-speed Centrifugal Beating Machine

System flow of this technology
Shredding
Waste
Wall covering

Pulverization

Separation

(recovery of pulp)

pulp

pulp

new

resin
pulp

new

shredder

beater

Rotary separator

Separation

cyclone

(recovery of resin)

resin
new

Figure-26

27

Separation tower
Figure-27

Vibrating sieve

resin

28
28

7


PVC wall covering

(4) Tray
Tray--to
to--Tray recycling by “FPCO system”
Dining
table

Retail

Delivery

Consumers

Supermarkets,
etc.

Packaging
wholesalers

FPCO

Structure of system using collaborating companies (FPCO System)

Washing &
drying

Collection

Storing

Picking-up
& recycling

Pulp

PVC resin

Production

Raw
material

Tasks of each
player
___ Supermarket
____
Packaging
Materials

Collection

FPCO

box

Sparkle
Gleam

Consumers are requested to
separate used styrofoam trays
from other garbage, and to
wash and dry them.

Back paper for wall covering

Used trays brought in by
consumers are accumulated in
collection bins at supermarkets
and other stores. This makes for
stronger ties between
consumers and supermarkets.

Packaging wholesalers use their
trucks to pick up the used trays
on their way back from delivery
runs to supermarkets, etc., and
temporarily store them on their
premises.

When our trucks deliver trays to
wholesalers, they bring the used
trays back with them on the return
trip. This method of collecting the
used trays is unique to FPCO,
which makes its own deliveries.

Used trays are also recovered via municipalities and a designated corporation.
Items meeting sorting
criteria

Municipalities

Floor mat for automobile

Collection & sorting

Form floor material

* Designated corporation route: Collection route prescribed
by the Containers and Packaging Recycling Law.

29

Figure-28

Consolidation of final processes
(improvement in quality of recycled raw materials)

Outsourced treatment

Designated corporation
Japan Containers and
Packaging Recycling
Association

30

Figure-29

Source : FP CORPORATION

Products from recycled materials (Tray-to-Tray)

Washing water filter machine
Alkaline concentration adjustment tank
Eco hot water Hot water tank
Alkalescent
Heat exchanger
supply system
detergent tank
Primary cleaning

Secondary cleaning

Rinsing

Plant Mill-End Pellets

Blend (70% plant mill-end, 30% collected
tray pellets)

Raw material

Old line

Recycled
sheet
Mold
Raw film
sheet

Sheeting Process
*Virgin raw material is not
used at the sheet step.

Figure-30
31

FP CORPORATION

Virgin film upper/lower laminate
(film mass is 20% of tray mass)

Oven
Blowing agent

Extruder

Recycled Pellets of Collected Trays

Cut

Printed-pattern
tray pellets

PSP new washing line

White-tray pellets

zPSP: Into 3 plants in Kanto, Shin-Chubu and Fukuyama
Sold as construction raw
materials
(Pilings, artificial wood,
wood flooring, etc.)

Eco Tray

Mill ends after
cutting are used
again to make
pellets

Vacuum
suction
Raw film
Molded product
sheet

Molding Process

Accounts for 20% of general-purpose trays
circulating in the Market.
Eco trays have an eco symbol.

32

Figure-31

FP CORPORATION

8


(5) Advanced separation technology of shredded plastic
mixture from WEEE

Ensuring Eco Tray Safety

WEEE
‹ A standards inspection of recycled raw
material is performed monthly by the
Japan Inspection Association of Food and
Food Industry Environment at every
recycling plant.
‹ The Japan Food Research Laboratories are
requested to test the Eco (recycled) Trays to
verify
if that
th t they
th satisfy
ti f the
th corresponding
di
regulations and standards.

Vegetable
case
【冷蔵庫
In refrigerator
野菜ケース】

Hygiene Test Certificate
Motor, Compressor

Manual
separation

Vegetable case, Washing tank(Big plastic parts)

Minute crushing
Separation technology

Shredding

Fe, Cu, Al ( Metals)

separation

‹ Both sides of Eco (recycled) Trays are
laminated with virgin film in order to ensure
additional product safety.

Shredded mix plastic
Sandwiched by polystyrene
film made from virgin raw
material

Recycled PSP

33

Figure-32

FP CORPORATION



Figure-33

34

Rough crushing(50~150mm) Minute crushing(5~10mm)

①Separation by specific gravity of plastic mixture

The selection flow of shredded plastic mixture


Source: Mitsubishi electric


【Separation by specific gravity】

Selection by
specific gravity

ABS/PS
mixture
Mixed
plastics

PP
Heavy
gravity
plastics
Figure-34

Electrostatic
separation

X-ray analysis
selection

ABS

High purity
ABS

PS

High purity
PS
High purity
PP

PP
●Principle
PP (specific gravity 0.91-0.98) that
is lighter than water float to surface
by using water for the medium, and
ABS and PS (specific gravity 1.041.10) that is heavier than water sink
to bottom, as a result , they can be
separated.
Cement
raw
material
35

Source: Mitsubishi electric

Figure-35

Buoyancy
y
y

ABS,PS

Light gravity plastic
Heavy gravity plastic

Gravity

36

Source: Mitsubishi electric

9


Source: Mitsubishi electric

②Separation by static electricity of plastic
mixture
PS,ABS mixture
plastics piece
The piece of PS and ABS
is rubbed, then matched
by rotating the
electrification cylinder,
and static electricity is
caused.



X ray

Air gun

Conveyer

ABS

Figure-37



PS: Polystyrene
ABS: Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene



Source: Mitsubishi electric

Controller



PS

2010 Fiscal year
The minister of
the environment
prize

③ X-ray analysis selection system
(under testing)

Electrode




PS(-)

-Electrode

Detector
Brominated flame
retardant content
plastic




ABS(+)

37

Figure-36

Brominated flame retardant Brominated flame retardant
38
free plastic
content plastic

X-ray penetration image

Source: Kyoei industry

(6) PET bottle to PET bottle by mechanical recycling

39

Label
separator

①Separation of foreign substance
(color bottle, label etc.)

Label
separator

Color bottle 
crasher

Label

Resource from municipality

PVC

Conveyer

Opener

Feeder

Color

Manual 
separation
p

Separator

Non ferrous Second crasher
Metal remover

First crasher

②Removal of surface foreign substance by alkali
Removal of surface
Foreign substance

Vibrating 
sieve

Magnetic 
separator

Cap

Dehydrator
Sieve

Figure-38

Flake

Wind separator

Heater

Second
dehydrator

Rinse

PO

High level safety
①Removal of surface foreign substance by alkali
・By alkali depolymeriziation, surface PET which is contact
with food is removed.
②Removal of residue foreign substance by vacuum and
high temp. and polymerize
・Under vacuum and high temp. state, almost low molecular
organic substances are removed and a polymerization is
occurred simultaneously.
Certification of safety
・By the fraunhofer test results, FDA permitted to pass a
food contact packaging criterion.
・The regulated substances (heavy metals, chemicals) are
not detected.
Source: Kyoei industry

Process flow of flake production

Hydro
cyclone

First
dehydrator

Alkali
washer

40

10


Source: Kyoei industry

Process flow of pellet production
③Removal of residue foreign substance by vacuum and high temp. and polymerize
Vacuum, High temp.
Flake

Hopper

Polymerization  and
Remove of foreign substance

Thank you for your attention.

Weight
meter

First
reactor

Figure-39

Second
reactor

Extruder

Filter

Cooling 
tank

Pelletizer

Vibrating 
sieve

41
Polymerization plant

Plastic Waste Management Institute
Sumitomorokko Bldg.,1-4-1 Shinkawa,Chuo-ku,Tokyo
104-0033,Japan
Tel;81-3-3297-7511 Fax;81-3-3297-7501
Web site http://www.pwmi.or.jp

42

Recycled pellet

11



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